Skip to main content

Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer by Hormone-Induced Differentiation

  • Conference paper
Cancer Prevention

Part of the book series: Recent Results in Cancer Research ((RECENTCANCER,volume 174))

Abstract

Breast cancer is a fatal disease whose incidence is gradually increasing in most industrialized countries and in all ethnic groups. Primary prevention is the ultimate goal for the control of this disease. The knowledge that breast cancer risk is reduced by early full-term pregnancy and that additional pregnancies increase the rate of protection has provided novel tools for designing cancer prevention strategies. The protective effect of pregnancy has been experimentally reproduced in virgin rats by treatment with the placental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). HCG prevents the initiation and inhibits the progression of chemically induced mammary carcinomas by inducing differentiation of the mammary gland, inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing apoptosis. It also induces the synthesis of inhibin, a tumor suppressor factor, downregulates the level of expression of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) by methylation of CpG islands, imprinting a permanent genomic signature that characterizes the refractory condition of the mammary gland to undergo malignant transformation. The genomic signature induced by hCG is identical to that induced by pregnancy and is specific for this hormone. Comparison of the mammary gland’s genomic profile of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats treated daily with hCG for 21 days with that of rats receiving 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Pg) (E2+ Pg) revealed that in hCG-treated rats 194 genes were significantly up-modulated (>2.5 log2-folds) (p<0.01) and commonly expressed, whereas these genes were not expressed in the E2+ Pg group. The genomic signature induced by hCG and pregnancy included activators or repressors of transcription genes, apoptosis, growth factors, cell division control, DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and cell-surface antigen genes. Our data indicate that hCG, like pregnancy, induces permanent genomic changes that are not reproduced by steroid hormones and in addition regulates gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that are differentiation-dependent processes, leading us to conclude that hormonally induced differentiation offers enormous promise for the primary prevention of breast cancer.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Albini A, Pagliefi L, Orengo G, Carlene S, Aluigi M, De Maachi R, Matteucci C, Mantovani A, Carozzi S, Benelli R (1997) The B-core fragment of human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits growth of Kaposi’s sarcoma derived cells and a new immortalized Kaposi’s sarcoma cell line. AIDS 11:713–72

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarado ME, Alvarado NE, Russo J, Russo IH (1994) Human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits proliferation and induces expression of inhibin in human breast epithelial cells in vitro. In Vitro 30:4–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Alvarado MV, Russo J, Russo IH (1993) Immunolocalization of inhibin in the mammary gland of rats treated with hCG J Histochem Cytochem 41:29–34

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Apter D (1996) Hormonal events during female puberty in relation to breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Prev 5:476–482

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Armstrong DK, Issacs JT, Ottaviano YL and Davidson NE (1992) Programmed cell death in an estrogenindependent human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-468. Cancer Res 52:3418–3424

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baum M (2002) The ATAC (Arimidex Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) adjuvant breast cancer trial in post-menopausal patients: factors influencing the success of patient recruitment. Eur J Cancer 38:1984–1986

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blair A, Zahm SH, Silverman DT (1999) Occupational cancer among women: Research status and methodologic considerations. Am J Ind Med 36:6–17

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boice JD Jr, Preston D, Davis FG, Monson RR (1991) Frequent chest X-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts. Radiat Res 125:214–222

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boudrau N, Sympson CJ, Werb Z, Bissell MJ (1995) Suppression of ICE and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells by extracellular matrix. Science 267:891–893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buttyan R, Olsson CA, Pintar J, Chang C, Bandyk Ng P, Sawczuk IS (1989) Induction of the TRPM2 gene in cells undergoing programmed cell death. Mol Cell Biol 9:3473–3481

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calaf G, Russo J (1993) Transformation of human breast epithelial cells by chemical carcinogens. Carcinogenesis 14:483–492

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chang J, Elledge RM (2001) Clinical management of women with genomic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Breast Cancer Res Treat 69:101–113

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chie WC, Hsieh C, Newcomb PA, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Clapp RW, Burke KP, Titus-Ernstoff L, Trentham-Dietz A, MacMahon B (2000) Age at any full-term pregnancy and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 151:715–722

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Clemons M, Loijens L (2000) Goss P Breast cancer risk following irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer Treat Rev 26:291–302

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coe K (1998) Breast cancer in Hispanic women. Women and Cancer 1:38–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2002) Breast cancer and breastfeeding: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without disease. Lancet 360:187–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cutuli B, Borel C, Dhermain F, Magrini SM, Wasserman TH, Bogart JA, Provencio M, de Lafontan B, de la Rochefordiere A, Cellai E, Graic Y, Kerbrat P, Alzieu C, Teissier E, Dilhuydy J, Mignotte H, Velten (2001) M Breast cancer occurred after treatment for Hodgkin’s disease: analysis of 133 cases. Radiother Oncol 59:247–255

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Waard F, Thijssen JH (2005) Hormonal aspects in the causation of human breast cancer: epidemiological hypotheses reviewed with special reference to nutritional status and first pregnancy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97:451–458

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dunn BK, McCaskill-Stevens W, Kramer B, Ford LG (2000) Chemoprevention of breast cancer: The NSABP’s breast cancer prevention trial. J Women’s Cancer 2:177–19

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Deiry W, Tokino T, Velculescu VE, Levy DB, Parsons R, Trent JM, Lin D, Mercer WE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein (1993) B WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression. Cell 75:817–825

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Evan GI, Littlewood TD (1993) The role of c-myc in cell growth. Curr Opin Genet Dev 3:44–49

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ewertz M, Duffy SW, Adami HO, Kvale G, Lund E, Meirik O, Mellemgaard A, Soini I, Tulinius H (1990) Age at first birth parity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 8 studies from the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 46:597–603

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri ES (1995a) Mch2, a new member of the apoptotic ced-3/ice cysteine protease gene family. Cancer Res 55:2737–2742

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fernandes-Ainemri T, Takashi A, Armstrong R, Krebs J, Fritz L, Tommaselli KJ, Wang L, Yu Z, Croce C M, Saiveson G, Earnshaw W C, Litwack G, Alnemri ES (1995b) Mch3, a novel human apoptotic cysteine protease highly related to CPP32. Cancer Res 5:6045–6052

    Google Scholar 

  • Forbes JF (1997) The incidence of breast cancer: the global burden public health considerations. Semin Oncol 41[Suppl 1]:S1-20–S1-35

    Google Scholar 

  • Fraumeni JF Jr, Lloyd JW, Smith EM, Wagoner JK (1969) Cancer mortality among nuns: Role of marital status in etiology of neoplastic disease in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2:455–468

    Google Scholar 

  • Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, Corle DK, Breen SB, Schairer C, Mulvihill JJ (1989) Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 81:1879–1886

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gaudette LA, Silberberger C, Altmayer CA, Gao RN (1996) Trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality. Health Reports 8:29–37

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun M (2001) Cancer Statistics 2001. CA Cancer J Clin 1:15–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris CC (1996) Structure and function of the p53 tumor suppressor gene: clues for rational cancer therapeutic strategies. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:1442–1455

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Schaid DJ, Frank TS, Soderberg CL, Sitta DL, Frost MH, Grant CS, Donohue JH, Woods JE, McDonnell SK, Vockley CW, Deffenbaugh A, Couch FJ, Jenkins RB (2001) Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1633–1637

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harvey KJ Blomquist JFI, Ucker DS (1998) Commitment and effector phases of the physiological cell death pathway elucidated with respect to Bcl-2 caspase and cyclin-dependent kinase activities. Mol Cell Biol 18:2912–2922

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffmann D, Hoffmann I, El-Bayoumy K (2001) The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue, a tribute to Ernst L Wynder. Chem Res Toxicol 14:767–790

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Holmberg E, Holm LE, Lundell M, Mattsson A, Wallgren A, Karlsson P (2001) Excess breast cancer risk and the role of parity age at first childbirth and exposure to radiation in infancy. Br J Cancer 85:362–366

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Howe HL, Wingo PA, Thun MJ, Ries LA, Rosenberg HM, Feigal EG, Edwards BK (2001) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer (1973 through 1998), featuring cancers with recent increasing trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:824–842

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Janov AJ, Tulecke M, O’Neill A, Lester S, Mauch PM, Harris J, Schnitt SJ, Shapiro (2001) CL Clinical and Pathologic Features of Breast Cancers in Women Treated for Hodgkin’s Disease: A Case-Control Study. Breast J 7:46–52

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jemal A, Thomas A, Murray T, Thun M (2002) Cancer Statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 52:23–47

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jernstrom H, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Ghadirian P, Neuhausen S, Isaacs C, Weber BL, Horsman D, Rosen B, Foulkes WD, Friedman E, Gershoni-Baruch R, Ainsworth P, Daly M, Garber J, Olsson H, Sun P, Narod SA (2004) Breast-feeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:1094–1098

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson M, Dimitrov D, Vojta.PJ, Barrett JC, Noda A, Pereira-Smith OM, Smith JR (1994) Evidence for a p53-independent pathway for upregulation of SDI/CIPI/WAFI/p21 RNA in human cells. Mol Carcinog 1:59–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelsey JL, Horn-Ross PL (1993) Breast Cancer: Magnitude of the problem and descriptive epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 15:7–16

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khurana KK, Loosmann A, Numann PJ, Khan SA (2000) Prophylactic mastectomy-pathologic findings in high-risk patients. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:378–381

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • King MC, Wieand S, Hale K, Lee M, Walsh T, Owens K, Tait J, Ford L, Dunn BK, Costantino J, Wickerham L, Wolmark N, Fisher B (2001) Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. JAMA 286:2251–2256

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kyprianou N, English HF, Davidson NE, Issacs JT (1991) Programmed cell death during regression of MCF-7 human breast cancer following estrogen ablation. Cancer Res 51:162–166

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lambe M, Hsieh CC, Chan HW, Ekbom A, Trichopoulos D and Adami H O (1996) Parity age at first and last birth and risk of breast cancer: A populationbased study in Sweden. Breast Cancer Res Treat 38:305–311

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch HT, Casey MJ (2001) Current status of prophylactic surgery for hereditary breast and gynecologic cancers. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 13:25–30

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • MacMahon B, Cole P, Lin TM et al (1970) Age at first birth and breast cancer risk. Bull World Health Organ 43:209–221

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mailo D, Russo J, Sheriff F, Hu YF, Tahin Q, Mihaila D, Balogh G, Russo IH (2002) Genomic signature induced by differentiation in the rat mammary gland. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 43:5368a

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsumoto H, Yamane T (2000) Green tea and cancer prevention. J Womens Cancer 2:153–158

    Google Scholar 

  • McGregor DH, Land CE, Choi K, Tokuoka S, Liu PI, Wakabayashi I, Beebe GW (1977) Breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1950–1989. J Natl Cancer Inst 59:799–811

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Merlo GR, Cella N, Hynes N (1997) Apoptosis is accompanied by changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expression induced by loss of attachment and inhibited by specific extracellular matrix proteins in mammary epithelial cells. Cell Growth Differ 8:251–260

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mgbonyebi O P, Tahin Q, Russo J, Russo IH (1996) Serum levels of chorionic gonadotropin in treated female rats during the progression of DMBA-induced tumorigenesis. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 37:1564a

    Google Scholar 

  • Mgbonyebi OP, Russo J, Russo IH (1997) Induction of reversible growth arrest of immortal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 38:294–295

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirza AN, Mirza NQ, Vlastos G, Singletary SE (2002) Prognostic factors in node-negative breast cancer: a review of studies with sample size more than 200 and follow-up more than 5 years. Ann Surg 235:10–26

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mouridsen H, Gershanovich M, Sun Y, Perez-Carrion R, Boni C, Monnier A, Apffelstaedt J, Smith R, Sleeboom HP, Janicke F, Pluzanska A, Dank M, Becquart D, Bapsy PP, Salminen E, Snyder R, Lassus M, Verbeek JA, Staffler B, Chaudri-Ross HA, Dugan M (2001) Superior efficacy of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of a phase III study of the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 19:2596–2606

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nandi S, Guzman RC, Yang J (1995) Hormones and mammary carcinogenesis in mice rats and humans: a unifying hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:3650–3657

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narod S (2001) Prophylactic mastectomy in carriers of BRCA mutations. N Engl J Med 345:1498; author reply 1499–1500

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narod SA, Brunet JS, Ghadirian P, Robson M, Heimdal K, Neuhausen SL, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Lerman C, Pasini B, de los Rios P, Weber B, Lynch H (2000) Tamoxifen and risk of contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a case-control study. Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group. Lancet 356:1876–1881

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nix JT (1964) Study of the relationship of environmental factors to the type and frequency of cancer causing death in nuns 1963. Hosp Prog 45:71–74

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ramazzini B (1965) De virginum vestalium valetudine tuenda dissertatio (a dissertation on the care of the health of nuns). J Occup Med 7:516–520

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rao DN, Ganesh B, Desai PB (1994) Role of reproductive factors in breast cancer in a low-risk area: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 70:129–152

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Riggs T (2001) Prophylactic mastectomy in carriers of BRCA mutations. N Engl J Med 345:1499–500

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson JF, Nicholson RI, Bundred NJ, Anderson E, Rayter Z, Dowsett M, Fox JN, Gee JM, Webster A, Wakeling AE, Morris C, Dixon M (2001) Comparison of the short-term biological effects of 7alpha-[9-(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentylsulfinyl)-nonyl]estra-1,3,5, (10)-triene-3,17beta-diol (Faslodex) versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. Cancer Res 61:6739–6746

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ronen D, Schwartz D, Teitz Y, Goldfinger N, Rotter V (1996) Induction of HL-60 cells to undergo apoptosis is determined by high levels of wild type p-53 protein whereas differentiation of the cells is mediated by lower p53 levels. Cell Growth Differ 7:21–30

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Russo J (1993) Chorionic gonadotropin: a tumoristatic and preventive agent in breast cancer in drug resistance in oncology In: Teicher BA (ed), Marcel Dekker, pp 537–560

    Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Russo J (1994) Role of hCG and inhibin in breast cancer (review). Int J Oncol 4:297–306

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Russo J (1996) Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies. Environ Health Perspect 104:938–967

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Russo J (1998) Role of pregnancy and chorionic gonadotropin in breast cancer prevention. In: Birkhauser MH, Rozenbaum H (eds) Proc IV European Congress on Menopause. ESKA, Paris, pp 133–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Koszalka M, Russo J (1990a) Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on mammary gland differentiation and carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 11:1849–1855

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Koszalka M, Russo J (1990b) Human chorionic gonadotropin and rat mammary cancer prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:1286–1289

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo IH, Koszalka M, Russo J (1991) Comparative study of the influence of pregnancy and hormonal treatment on mammary carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer 64:481–484

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Russo IH (1980a) Influence of differentiation and cell kinetics on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 40:2677–2687

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Russo IH (1980b) Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. II Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence. Am J Pathol 100:497–512

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Russo IH (1993) Developmental pattern of the human breast and susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer Prevent 2:85–100

    Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Russo IH (1994) Toward a physiological approach to breast cancer prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3:353–364

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Russo IH (2000) Human chorionic gonadotropin in breast cancer prevention In: Ethier SP (ed) Endocrine oncology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 121–136

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Janssens J, Russo IH (2000) Recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) significantly reduces primary tumor cell proliferation in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 64:161a

    Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Saby J, Isenberg W, Russo IH (1977) Pathogenesis of mammary carcinoma induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 59:435–445

    Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Wilgus G, Russo IH (1979) Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. I Differentiation of the mammary gland as determinant of tumor incidence and type of lesion. Am J Pathol 96:721–734

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Tay LK, Russo IH (1982) Differentiation of the mammary gland and susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2:5–73

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russo J, Rivera R, Russo IH (1992) Influence of age and parity on the development of the human breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat 23:211–218

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sakamuro D, Eviner V, Elliott KJ, Showe L, White E, Prendergast GC (1995) C-myc induces apoptosis in epithelial cells by both p-53 dependent and p53 independent mechanisms. Oncogene 11:2411–2418

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shivvers SA, Miller DS (1997) Preinvasive and invasive breast and cervical cancer prior to or during pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 24:369–389

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simboli-Campbell M, Narvaez CJ, Tenniswood M, Welsh (1996) JE 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces morphological and biochemical markers of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 58:367–376

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sinha DK, Patzik JE, Dao TL (1983) Progression of rat mammary development with age and its relationship to carcinogenesis by a chemical carcinogen. Int J Cancer 31:321–327

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Srivastava P, Russo J, Russo IH (1998) Chorionic gonadotropin inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis through activation of programmed cell death. Carcinogenesis 18:1799–1808

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Srivastava P, Russo J, Russo IH (1999) Inhibition of rat mammary tumorigenesis by human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with increased expression of inhibin. Mol Carcinog 26:10–19

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stoutjesdijk MJ, Barentsz JO (2001) Prophylactic mastectomy in carriers of BRCA mutations. N Engl J Med 345:1499, author reply 1499–1500

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Strobel T, Swanson L, Korsmeyer S, Cannistra SA (1996) Bax enhances pacitaxel-induced apoptosis through a p53-independent pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14094–14099

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sun M (1984) Panel says Depo-Provera not proved safe. Science 226:950

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tahin Q, Mgbonyebi OP, Russo J, Russo IH (1996) Influence of hormonal changes induced by the placental hormone chorionic gonadotropin on the progression of mammary tumorigenesis. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 37:1622a

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanner JM (1973) Trend towards earlier menarche in London, Oslo, Copenhagen, the Netherlands and Hungary. Nature 243:95–96

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tay LK, Russo J (1981a) 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-induced DNA binding and repair synthesis in susceptible and non-susceptible mammary epithelial cells in culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 7:155–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Tay LK, Russo J (1981b) Formation and removal of 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-nucleic acid adducts in rat mammary epithelial cells with different susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2:1327–1333

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tay LK, Russo J (1983) Metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbe nz(a)anthracene by rat mammary epithelial cells in culture. Carcinogenesis 4:733–738

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tewari M, Quan LT, O’Rourke A, Desnoyers S, Zeng Z, Beidler DR, Poirier GG, Salvesen GS, Dixit VM (1995) Yama/CPP32, a mammalian homolog of CED-3, is a Crm A-inhibitable protease that cleaves the death substrate poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase. Cell 81:801–809

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Trapido EJ (1983) Age at first birth parity and breast cancer risk. Cancer 51:946–948

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tymchuk CN, Tessler SB, Barnard RJ (2000) Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin insulin and serum lipids in postmenopausal women on a low-fat high-fiber diet combined with exercise. Nutr Cancer 38:158–162

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vermeulen A, Dhnodt M, Their YK, Van Der Kerckhove D (1976) Plasma sex steroid and gonadotropin levels in control and silastic vaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate-impregnated ring cycles. Fertil Steril 27:773–779

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vessey MD, McPherson K, Roberts MM, Neil A, Jones L (1985) Fertility and the risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 52:625–628

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Warmuth MA, Sutton LM, Winer EP (1997) A review of hereditary breast cancer: From screening to risk factor modification. Am J Med 102:407–415

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2007 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this paper

Cite this paper

Russo, I.H., Russo, J. (2007). Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer by Hormone-Induced Differentiation. In: Senn, HJ., Kapp, U. (eds) Cancer Prevention. Recent Results in Cancer Research, vol 174. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-37696-5_11

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-37696-5_11

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-540-37695-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-540-37696-5

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics