Advertisement

LASIK: Late Postoperative Complications

  • Jerome C. Ramos-Esteban
  • Steven Wilson
  • Gustavo E. Tamayo
  • J. Bradley Randleman
  • R. Doyle Stulting
  • Eric E. Gabison
  • Thanh Hoang-Xuan

Abstract

  • Dry eye is the most common early and late postoperative complication after LASIK surgery.

  • LASIK-induced dry eye is caused by a combination of decreased corneal innervation and chronic ocular surface inflammation.

  • LASIK-induced dry eye is manifested clinically by the presence of fluctuation in visual acuity, punctate epithelial erosions, and, in some patients, with decreased tear production.

  • LINE is the preferred term to describe this condition when it occurs after LASIK or LASIK enhancement in an eye with no symptoms or signs of dry eye prior to surgery. Some eyes likely have both LINE and underlying inflammatory dry eye disease.

  • Optimization of the ocular surface is an important step to improving patient satisfaction and outcomes after LASIK surgery.

Keywords

Ocular Surface Rose Bengal Corneal Sensitivity Ocular Surface Disease Index Photorefractive Keratectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Duffey RJ, Leaming D (2005) US trends in refractive surgery: 2004 ISRS/AAO Survey. J Refract Surg 21:742–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Solomon KD, Holzer MP, Sandoval HP et al (2002) Refractive Surgery Survey 2001. J Cataract Refract Surg Feb 28:346–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Toda I, Asano-Kato N, Komai-Hori Y, Tsubota K (2001) Dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol Jul 132:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albietz JM, Lenton LM, McLennan SG (2005) Dry eye after LASIK: comparison of outcomes for Asian and Caucasian eyes. Clin Exp Optom Mar 88:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Paiva CS, Chen Z, Koch DD et al (2006) The incidence and risk factors for developing dry eye after myopic LASIK (Exp Eye Res) Am J Ophthalmol 141:438–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Linna TU, Perez-Santonja JJ, Tervo KM, Sakla HF, Alio y Sanz JL, Tervo TM (1998) Recovery of corneal nerve morphology following laser in situ keratomileusis. Exp Eye Res 66:755–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilson SE, Ambrosio R (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 132:405–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Battat L, Macri A, Dursun D, Pflugfelder SC (2001) Effects of laser in situ keratomileusis on tear production, clearance, and the ocular surface. Ophthalmology 108:1230–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilson SE (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced (presumed) neurotrophic epitheliopathy. Ophthalmology 108:1082–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benitez-del-Castillo JM, del Rio T, Iradier T, Hernandez JL, Castillo A, Garcia-Sanchez J (2001) Decrease in tear secretion and corneal sensitivity after laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 20:30–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patel S, Perez-Santonja JJ, Alio JL, Murphy PJ (2001) Corneal sensitivity and some properties of the tear film after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 17:17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu EY, Leung A, Rao S, Lam DS (2000) Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on tear stability. Ophthalmology 107:2131–2135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Albietz JM, Lenton LM, McLennan SG (2002) Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia on tear film and ocular surface. J Refract Surg 18:113–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Albietz JM, Lenton LM, McLennan SG (2004) Chronic dry eye and regression after laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:675–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wilson SE, Liang Q, Kim WJ (1999) Lacrimal gland HGF, KGF, and EGF mRNA levels increase after corneal epithelial wounding. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:2185–2190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Albietz JM, McLennan SG, Lenton LM (2003) Ocular surface management of photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 19:636–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salib GM, McDonald MB, Smolek M (2006) Safety and efficacy of cyclosporine 0.05% drops versus unpreserved artificial tears in dry-eye patients having laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:772–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilson S, Perry HD (2007) Long-term resolution of chronic dry eye symptoms and signs after topical cyclosporine A treatment. Ophthalmology 114:76–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Toda I, Kato-Asano N, Hori-Komai Y, Tsubota K (2006) Dry eye after LASIK enhancement by flap lifting. J Refract Surg 22:358–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davidorf JM, Zaldivar R, Oscherow S (1998) Results and complications of laser in situ keratomileusis by experienced surgeons. J Refract Surg 14:114–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilson SE, Mohan RR, Hong JW, Lee JS, Choi R, Mohan RR (2001) The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction. Arch Ophthalmol 119:889–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alio JL, Artola A, Belda JI et al (2005) LASIK in patients with rheumatic diseases: a pilot study. Ophthalmology 112:1948–1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE (2000) Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 118:1264–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tekwani NH, Huang D (2002) Risk factors for intraoperative epithelial defect in laser in-situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 134:311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asano-Kato N, Toda I, Hori-Komai Y, Takano Y, Tsubota K (2002) Epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis: clinical features and possible mechanisms. Am J Ophthalmol 134:801–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang MY, Maloney RK (2000) Epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 129:746–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mulhern MG, Naor J, Rootman DS (2002) The role of epithelial defects in intralamellar inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis. Can J Ophthalmol 37:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Albietz JM, Lenton LM (2004) Management of the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 20:62–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sullivan DA, Krenzer KL, Sullivan BD, Tolls DB, Toda I, Dana MR (1999) Does androgen insufficiency cause lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous tear deficiency? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:1261–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krenzer KL, Dana MR, Ullman MD et al (2000) Effect of androgen deficiency on the human meibomian gland and ocular surface. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:4874–4882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lemp MA (1995) Report of the National Eye Institute/Industry workshop on clinical trials in dry eyes. Clao J 21:221–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yo C (2003) Asian Americans: myopia and refractive surgery. Int Ophthalmol Clin 43:173–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Asano-Kato N, Toda I, Hori-Komai Y, Takano Y, Tsubota K (2002) Risk factors for insufficient fixation of microkeratome during laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 18:47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Albietz J, Lenton L, McLennan S (2002) The effect of tear film and ocular surface management on myopic LASIK outcomes. Adv Exp Med Biol 506 (Pt A):711–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Toda I, Asano-Kato N, Hori-Komai Y, Tsubota K (2002) Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for patients with dry eye. Arch Ophthalmol 120:1024–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Toda I, Asano-Kato N, Hori-Komai Y, Tsubota K (2004) Ocular surface treatment before laser in situ keratomileusis in patients with severe dry eye. J Refract Surg 20:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chuck RS, Quiros PA, Perez AC, McDonnell PJ (2000) Corneal sensation after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:337–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vroman DT, Sandoval HP, Fernandez de Castro LE, Kasper TJ, Holzer MP, Solomon KD (2005) Effect of hinge location on corneal sensation and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1881–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Donnenfeld ED, Ehrenhaus M, Solomon R, Mazurek J, Rozell JC, Perry HD (2004) Effect of hinge width on corneal sensation and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:790–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Donnenfeld ED, Solomon K, Perry HD et al (2003) The effect of hinge position on corneal sensation and dry eye after LASIK. Ophthalmology 110:1023–1029; discussion 1029–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lawrenson JG, Ruskell GL (1993) Investigation of limbal touch sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Br J Ophthalmol 77:339–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Muller LJ, Marfurt CF, Kruse F, Tervo TM (2003) Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function. Exp Eye Res 76:521–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nassaralla BA, McLeod SD, Boteon JE, Nassaralla JJ Jr (2005) The effect of hinge position and depth plate on the rate of recovery of corneal sensation following LASIK. Am J Ophthalmol Ja 139:118–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nassaralla BA, McLeod SD, Nassaralla JJ Jr (2003) Effect of myopic LASIK on human corneal sensitivity. Ophthalmology 110:497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee KW, Joo CK (2003) Clinical results of laser in situ keratomileusis with superior and nasal hinges. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:457–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kumano Y, Matsui H, Zushi I et al (2003) Recovery of corneal sensation after myopic correction by laser in situ keratomileusis with a nasal or superior hinge. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:757–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kim WS, Kim JS (1999) Change in corneal sensitivity following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:368–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Farris RL, Stuchell RN, Mandel ID (1986) Tear osmolarity variation in the dry eye. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 84:250–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Stern ME, Smith JA, Gipson IK (2000) Analysis of topical cyclosporine treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome: effect on conjunctival lymphocytes. Arch Ophthalmol 118:1489–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK (2002) Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation in the conjunctiva of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with cyclosporine. Arch Ophthalmol 120:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bron AJ (2001) Diagnosis of dry eye. Surv Ophthalmol 45(Suppl 2):S221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hovanesian JA, Shah SS, Maloney RK (2001) Symptoms of dry eye and recurrent erosion syndrome after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:577–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee JB, Ryu CH, Kim J, Kim EK, Kim HB (2000) Comparison of tear secretion and tear film instability after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1326–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blades KJ, Patel S (1996) The dynamics of tear flow within a phenol red impregnated thread. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 16:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    (2001) Tomlinson A, Blades KJ, Pearce EI. What does the phenol red thread test actually measure? Optom Vis Sci 78:142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mainstone JC, Bruce AS, Golding TR (1996) Tear meniscus measurement in the diagnosis of dry eye. Curr Eye Res 15:653–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lucca JA, Nunez JN, Farris RL (1990) A comparison of diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca: lactoplate, Schirmer, and tear osmolarity. Clao J 16:109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman J (2001) Comparison of fluorescein break-up time measurement reproducibility using standard fluorescein strips versus the Dry Eye Test (DET) method. Cornea 20:811–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee HK, Lee KS, Kim HC, Lee SH, Kim EK (2005) Nerve growth factor concentration and implications in photorefractive keratectomy vs laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 139:965–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lin YY, Carrel H, Wang IJ, Lin PJ, Hu FR (2005) Effect of tear film break-up on higher order aberrations of the anterior cornea in normal, dry, and post-LASIK eyes. J Refract Surg 21:S525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goto T, Zheng X, Klyce SD et al (2004) Evaluation of the tear film stability after laser in situ keratomileusis using the tear film stability analysis system. Am J Ophthalmol 137:116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goto T, Zheng X, Okamoto S, Ohashi Y (2004) Tear film stability analysis system: introducing a new application for videokeratography. Cornea 23(8 Suppl):S65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Michaeli A, Slomovic AR, Sakhichand K, Rootman DS (2004) Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on tear secretion and corneal sensitivity. J Refract Surg 20:379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bron AJ, Evans VE, Smith JA (2003) Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests. Cornea 22:640–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Feenstra RP, Tseng SC (1992) What is actually stained by rose bengal? Arch Ophthalmol 110:984–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lee BH, McLaren JW, Erie JC, Hodge DO, Bourne WM (2002) Reinnervation in the cornea after LASIK. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3660–3664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL (2000) Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch Ophthalmol 118:615–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Perry HD, Donnenfeld ED (2004) Dry eye diagnosis and management in 2004. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 15:299–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sobrin L, Liu Z, Monroy DC et al (2000) Regulation of MMP-9 activity in human tear fluid and corneal epithelial culture supernatant. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1703–1709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marsh P, Pflugfelder SC (1999) Topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjogren’s syndrome. Ophthalmology 106:811–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huang B, Mirza MA, Qazi MA, Pepose JS (2004) The effect of punctal occlusion on wavefront aberrations in dry eye patients after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 137:52–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miljanovic B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA (2005) Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr 82:887–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tsubota K, Goto E, Shimmura S, Shimazaki J (1999) Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect by autologous serum application. Ophthalmology 06:1984–1989Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tsubota K, Goto E, Fujita H et al (1999) Treatment of dry eye by autologous serum application in Sjogren’s syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 83:390–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ogawa Y, Okamoto S, Mori T et al (2003) Autologous serum eye drops for the treatment of severe dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 31:579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Noda-Tsuruya T, Asano-Kato N, Toda I, Tsubota K (2006) Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye after LASIK. J Refract Surg 22:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar

Bibliography

  1. Buratto L, Brint S (2000) LASIK: surgical techniques and complications, 2nd edn. Slack, Thorofare, N.J.Google Scholar
  2. Castillo A, Diaz-Valle D, Gutierrez AR et al (1998) Peripheral melt of flap after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Danjo S, Friend J, Thoft RA (1987) Conjunctival epithelium in healing of corneal epithelial wounds. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 28:1445–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gimbel HV, Penno EE, Van Westenbrugge JA et al (1998) Incidence and management of intraoperative and early postoperative complications in 1000 consecutive laser in situ keratomileusis cases. Ophthalmology 105:1839–1847; discussion 1847–1848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Grayson M (1983) Diseases of the cornea, 2nd edn. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  6. Gulani AC (1993) Epithelial ingrowth. Paper presented at the 10th meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Nice, FranceGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardten DR, Lindstrom RL (1998) Management of LASIK complications. Oper Tech Cataract Surg 1:32–39Google Scholar
  8. Haw WW, Manche EE (2001) Treatment of progressive or recurrent epithelial ingrowth with ethanol following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Ref Surg 17:63–68Google Scholar
  9. Machat NJ, Slade SG, Probst LE (1999) The art of LASIK, 2nd edition. Slack, Thorofare, N.J.Google Scholar
  10. Wilson SE (1998) LASIK: management of common complications. Laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 17:459–467PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Alio J, Salem T, Artola A, Osman A (2002) Intracorneal rings to correct corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1568–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alio JL, Shabayek MH (2006) Corneal higher order aberrations: a method to grade keratoconus. J Refract Surg 22:539–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amoils SP, Deist MB, Gous P, Amoils PM (2000) Iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis for less than —4.0 to −7.0 diopters of myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:967–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andreassen TT, Simonsen AH, Oxlund H (1980) Biomechanical properties of keratoconus and normal corneas. Exp Eye Res 31:435–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Argento C, Cosentino MJ, Tytiun A, Rapetti G, Zarate J (2001) Corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1440–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Avila M, Li Y, Song JC, Huang D (2006) High-speed optical coherence tomography for management after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1836–1842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Binder PS (2006) One thousand consecutive IntraLase laser in situ keratomileusis flaps. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:962–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Binder PS, Lindstrom RL, Stulting RD, Donnenfeld E, Wu H, McDonnell P, Rabinowitz Y (2005) Keratoconus and corneal ectasia after LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2035–2038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Budo C, Bartels MC, van Rij G (2005) Implantation of Artisan toric phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of astigmatism and spherical errors in patients with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 21:218–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang AW, Tsang AC, Contreras JE, Huynh PD, Calvano CJ, Crnic-Rein TC, Thall EH (2003) Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1204–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang DH, Stulting RD (2005) Change in intraocular pressure measurements after LASIK the effect of the refractive correction and the lamellar flap. Ophthalmology 112:1009–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choi HJ, Kim MK, Lee JL (2004) Optimization of contact lens fitting in keratectasia patients after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1057–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Comaish IF, Lawless MA (2002) Progressive post-LASIK keratectasia: biomechanical instability or chronic disease process? J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2206–2213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dawson DG, O’Brien TP, Dubovy SR, Randleman JB, Grossniklaus HE, Edelhauser HF, McCarey BE (2006) Post-LASIK ectasia: histopathology, ultrastructure, and corneal physiology from human corneal buttons and eye bank donors. Presented at the AAO Annual Meeting, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Paiva CS, Harris LD, Pflugfelder SC (2003) Keratoconuslike topographic changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea 22:22–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dougherty PJ, Wellish KL, Maloney RK (1994) Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration. Am J Ophthalmol 118:169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duffey RJ, Leaming D (2005) US trends in refractive surgery: 2004 ISRS/AAO Survey. J Refract Surg 21:742–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dupps WJ Jr (2005) Biomechanical modeling of corneal ectasia. J Refract Surg 21:186–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durairaj VD, Balentine J, Kouyoumdjian G, Tooze JA, Young D, Spivack L, Taravella MJ (2000) The predictability of corneal flap thickness and tissue laser ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 107:2140–2143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Erie JC, Patel SV, McLaren JW, Hodge DO, Bourne WM (2006) Corneal keratocyte deficits after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 141:799–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flanagan GW, Binder PS (2003) Precision of flap measurements for laser in situ keratomileusis in 4428 eyes. J Refract Surg 19:113–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fogla R, Padmanabhan P (2006) Results of deep lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique in patients with keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 141:254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fontana L, Parente G, Tassinari G (2007) Clinical outcomes after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique in patients with keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 143:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grabner G, Eilmsteiner R, Steindl C, Ruckhofer J, Mattioli R, Husinsky W (2005) Dynamic corneal imaging. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:163–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guirao A (2005) Theoretical elastic response of the cornea to refractive surgery: risk factors for keratectasia. J Refract Surg 21:176–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haque S, Simpson T, Jones L (2006) Corneal and epithelial thickness in keratoconus: a comparison of ultrasonic pachymetry, Orbscan II, and optical coherence tomography. J Refract Surg 22:486–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hiatt JA, Wachler BS, Grant C (2005) Reversal of laser in situ keratomileusis-induced ectasia with intraocular pressure reduction. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1652–1655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holland SP, Srivannaboon S, Reinstein DZ (2000) Avoiding serious corneal complications of laser assisted in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology 107:640–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iskander NG, Anderson Penno E, Peters NT, Gimbel HV, Ferensowicz M (2001) Accuracy of Orbscan pachymetry measurements and DHG ultrasound pachymetry in primary laser in situ keratomileusis and LASIK enhancement procedures. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:681–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacobs BJ, Deutsch TA, Rubenstein JB (1999) Reproducibility of corneal flap thickness in LASIK. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 30:350–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jafri B, Lichter H, Stulting RD (2004) Asymmetric keratoconus attributed to eye rubbing. Cornea 23:560–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Javadi MA, Motlagh BF, Jafarinasab MR, Rabbanikhah Z, Anissian A, Souri H, Yazdani S (2005) Outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus. Cornea 24:941–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jaycock PD, Lobo L, Ibrahim J, Tyrer J, Marshall J (2005) Interferometric technique to measure biomechanical changes in the cornea induced by refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim H, Choi JS, Joo CK (2006) Corneal ectasia after PRK: clinicopathologic case report. Cornea 25:845–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klein SR, Epstein RJ, Randleman JB, Stulting RD (2006) Corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis in patients without apparent preoperative risk factors. Cornea 25:388–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koch DD (1999) The riddle of iatrogenic keratectasia. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:453–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kohlhaas M, Spoerl E, Schilde T, Unger G, Wittig C, Pillunat LE (2006) Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of crosslinks in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kohnen T (2002) Iatrogenic keratectasia: current knowledge, current measurements. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2065–2066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krachmer JH (2004) Eye rubbing can cause keratoconus. Cornea 23:539–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kymionis GD, Siganos CS, Kounis G, Astyrakakis N, Kalyvianaki MI, Pallikaris IG (2003) Management of post-LASIK corneal ectasia with Intacs inserts: one-year results. Arch Ophthalmol 121:322–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Leccisotti A, Fields SV (2003) Angle-supported phakic intraocular lenses in eyes with keratoconus and myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1530–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lifshitz T, Levy J, Klemperer I, Levinger S (2005) Late bilateral keratectasia after LASIK in a low myopic patient. J Refract Surg 21:494–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lovisolo CF, Fleming JF (2002) Intracorneal ring segments for iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis or photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Surg 18:535–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Luce DA (2005) Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:156–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Maldonado MJ, Ruiz-Oblitas L, Munuera JM, Aliseda D, Garcia-Layana A, Moreno-Montanes J (2000) Optical coherence tomography evaluation of the corneal cap and stromal bed features after laser in situ keratomileusis for high myopia and astigmatism. Ophthalmology 107:81–87; discussion 88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Malecaze F, Coullet J, Calvas P, Fournie P, Arne JL, Brodaty C (2006) Corneal ectasia after photorefractive keratectomy for low myopia. Ophthalmology 113:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moller-Pedersen T, Ledet T, Ehlers N (1994) The keratocyte density of human donor corneas. Curr Eye Res 13:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Donnell C, Welham L, Doyle S (2004) Contact lens management of keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia. Eye Contact Lens 30:144–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Owens H, Gamble G (2003) A profile of keratoconus in New Zealand. Cornea 22:122–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pallikaris IG, Kymionis GD, Astyrakakis NI (2001) Corneal ectasia induced by laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1796–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Parmar D, Claoue C (2004) Keratectasia following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 82:102–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Patel S, McLaren J, Hodge D, Bourne W (2001) Normal human keratocyte density and corneal thickness measurement by using confocal microscopy in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:333–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Piccoli PM, Gomes AA, Piccoli FV (2003) Corneal ectasia detected 32 months after LASIK for correction of myopia and asymmetric astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1222–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pokroy R, Levinger S, Hirsh A (2004) Single Intacs segment for post-laser in situ keratomileusis keratectasia. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1685–1695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pramanik S, Musch DC, Sutphin JE, Farjo AA (2006) Extended long-term outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus. Ophthalmology 113:1633–1638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Prisant O, Calderon N, Chastang P, Gatinel D, Hoang-Xuan T (2003) Reliability of pachymetric measurements using orbscan after excimer refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 110:511–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Quisling S, Sjoberg S, Zimmerman B, Goins K, Sutphin J (2006) Comparison of Pentacam and Orbscan IIz on posterior curvature topography measurements in keratoconus eyes. Ophthalmology 113:1629–1632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rabinowitz YS, McDonnell PJ (1989) Computer-assisted corneal topography in keratoconus. Refract Corneal Surg 5:400–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rad AS, Jabbarvand M, Saifi N (2004) Progressive keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 20: S718–S722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Randleman JB (2006) Post-laser in-situ keratomileusis ectasia: current understanding and future directions. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 17:406–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Randleman JB, Caster AI, Banning CS, Stulting RD (2006) Corneal ectasia after photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1395–1398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Randleman JB, Hewitt SM, Lynn MJ, Stulting RD (2005) A comparison of 2 methods for estimating residual stromal bed thickness before repeat LASIK. Ophthalmology 112:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Randleman JB, Russell B, Ward MA, Thompson KP, Stulting RD (2003) Risk factors and prognosis for corneal ectasia after LASIK. Ophthalmology 110:267–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Randleman JB, Woodward M, Lynn MJ, Stulting RD (2007) Risk assessment for ectasia after corneal refractive surgery. Ophthalmology (in press)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reinstein DZ, Srivannaboon S, Archer TJ, Silverman RH Sutton H, Coleman DJ (2006) Probability model of the inaccuracy of residual stromal thickness prediction to reduce the risk of ectasia after LASIK part I: quantifying individual risk. J Refract Surg 22:851–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Salz JJ, Azen SP, Berstein J, Caroline P, Villasenor RA, Schanzlin DJ (1983) Evaluation and comparison of sources of variability in the measurement of corneal thickness with ultrasonic and optical pachymeters. Ophthalmic Surg 14:750–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seiler T (1999) Iatrogenic keratectasia: academic anxiety or serious risk? J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1307–1308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Seiler T, Koufala K, Richter G (1998) Iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:312–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Seiler T, Quurke AW (1998) Iatrogenic keratectasia after LASIK in a case of forme fruste keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1007–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Siganos CS, Kymionis GD, Astyrakakis N, Pallikaris IG (2002) Management of corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis with INTACS. J Refract Surg 18:43–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spadea L, Palmieri G, Mosca L, Fasciani R, Balestrazzi E (2002) Iatrogenic keratectasia following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 18:475–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Talamo JH, Meltzer J, Gardner J (2006) Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes. J Refract Surg 22:556–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ucakhan OO, Kanpolat A, Ylmaz N, Ozkan M (2006) In vivo confocal microscopy findings in keratoconus. Eye Contact Lens 32:183–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vinciguerra P, Torres I, Camesasca FI (2002) Applications of confocal microscopy in refractive surgery. J Refract Surg 18: S378–S381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wang JC, Hufnagel TJ, Buxton DF (2003) Bilateral keratectasia after unilateral laser in situ keratomileusis: a retrospective diagnosis of ectatic corneal disorder. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2015–2018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ward MA (2003) Contact lens management following corneal refractive surgery. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 16:395–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Watson SL, Ramsay A, Dart JK, Bunce C, Craig E (2004) Comparison of deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus. Ophthalmology 111:1676–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wollensak G (2006) Crosslinking treatment of progressive keratoconus: new hope. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 17:356–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T (2003) Riboflavin/ultraviolet-ainduced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 135:620–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wollensak G, Wilsch M, Spoerl E, Seiler T (2004) Collagen fiber diameter in the rabbit cornea after collagen crosslinking by ribofl avin/UVA. Cornea 23:503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yildirim R, Aras C, Ozdamar A, Bahcecioglu H, Ozkan S (2000) Reproducibility of corneal flap thickness in laser in situ keratomileusis using the Hansatome microkeratome. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1729–1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zadnik K, Barr JT, Gordon MO, Edrington TB (1996) Biomicroscopic signs and disease severity in keratoconus. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study Group. Cornea 15:139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zadnik K, Steger-May K, Fink BA, Joslin CE, Nichols JJ, Rosenstiel CE, Tyler JA, Yu JA, Raasch TW, Schechtman KB (2002) Between-eye asymmetry in keratoconus. Cornea 21:671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Ivarsen A, Laurberg T, Moller-Pedersen T (2003) Characterisation of corneal fibrotic wound repair at the LASIK flap margin. Br J Ophthalmol 87:1272–1278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ivarsen A, Laurberg T, Moller-Pedersen T (2004) Role of keratocyte loss on corneal wound repair after LASIK. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:3499–3506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ivarsen A, Moller-Pedersen T (2005) LASIK induces minimal regrowth and no haze development in rabbit corneas. Curr Eye Res 30:363–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Philipp WE, Speicher L, Gottinger W (2003) Histological and immunohistochemical findings after laser in situ keratomileusis in human corneas. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:808–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sonigo B, Iordanidou V, Chong-Sit D et al (2006) In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:2803–2811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kramer TR, Chuckpaiwong V, Dawson DG et al (2005) Pathologic findings in postmortem corneas after successful laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 24:92–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park CK, Kim JH (1999) Comparison of wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in rabbits. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:842–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ma XH, Li JH, Bi HS et al (2003) [Comparison of corneal wound healing of photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in rabbits]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 39:140–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kato T, Nakayasu K, Hosoda Y et al (1999) Corneal wound healing following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): a histopathological study in rabbits. Br J Ophthalmol 83:1302–1305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iskander NG, Peters NT, Anderson Penno E, Gimbel HV (2001) Late traumatic flap dislocation after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1111–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iskander NG, Peters NT, Penno EA, Gimbel HV (2000) Postoperative complications in laser in situ keratomileusis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 11:273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stramer BM, Zieske JD, Jung JC et al (2003) Molecular mechanisms controlling the fibrotic repair phenotype in cornea: implications for surgical outcomes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:4237–4246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fini ME, Stramer BM (2005) How the cornea heals: cornea-specific repair mechanisms affecting surgical outcomes. Cornea 24(8 Suppl):S2–S11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kenyon KR, Paz H, Greiner JV, Gipson IK (2004) Corneal epithelial adhesion abnormalities associated with LASIK. Ophthalmology 111:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shah MN, Misra M, Wihelmus KR, Koch DD (2000) Diffuse lamellar keratitis associated with epithelial defects after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1312–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harrison DA, Periman LM (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis associated with recurrent corneal erosions after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 17:463–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yavitz EQ (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis caused by mechanical disruption of epithelium 60 days after LASIK. J Refract Surg 17:621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakamura K (2003) Interaction between injured corneal epithelial cells and stromal cells. Cornea 22(7 Suppl):S35–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakamura K, Kurosaka D, Bissen-Miyajima H, Tsubota K (2001) Intact corneal epithelium is essential for the prevention of stromal haze after laser assisted in situ keratomileusis. Br J Ophthalmol 85:209–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuo IC, Ou R, Hwang DG (2001) Flap haze after epithelial debridement and flap hydration for treatment of post-laser in situ keratomileusis striae. Cornea 20:339–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steinert RF, Ashrafzadeh A, Hersh PS (2004) Results of phototherapeutic keratectomy in the management of flap striae after LASIK. Ophthalmology 111:740–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buhren J, Kohnen T (2003) Corneal wound healing after laser in situ keratomileusis flap lift and epithelial abrasion. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2007–2012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moshirfar M, Marx DP, Barsam CA et al (2005) Salzmann’s-like nodular degeneration following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2021–2025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cobo-Soriano R, Beltran J, Baviera J (2006) LASIK outcomes in patients with underlying systemic contraindications: a preliminary study. Ophthalmology 113:1124 e1Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Artola A, Gala A, Belda JI et al (2006) LASIK in myopic patients with dermatological keloids. J Refract Surg 22:505–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Girgis R, Morris DS, Kotagiri A, Ramaesh K (2005) Bilateral corneal scarring after LASIK and PRK in a patient with propensity to keloid scar formation. Eye 21:96–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carones F, Vigo L, Carones AV, Brancato R (2001) Evaluation of photorefractive keratectomy retreatments after regressed myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 108:1732–1737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lazaro C, Castillo A, Hernandez-Matamoros JL et al (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis enhancement after photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology 108:1423–1429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alio JL, Artola A, Attia WH et al (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis for treatment of residual myopia after photorefractive keratectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 132:196–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Ayala MJ, Sakla HF et al (1999) Retreatment after laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 106:21–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clausse MA, Boutros G, Khanjian G et al (2001) A retrospective study of laser in situ keratomileusis after radial keratotomy. J Refract Surg 17(2 Suppl):S200–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Berns MW, Liaw LH, Oliva A et al (1988) An acute light and electron microscopic study of ultraviolet 193-nm excimer laser corneal incisions. Ophthalmology 95:1422–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nagy ZZ, Toth J, Nagymihaly A, Suveges I (2002) The role of ultraviolet-B in corneal healing following excimer laser in situ keratomileusis. Pathol Oncol Res 8:41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nagy ZZ, Hiscott P, Seitz B et al (1997) Clinical and morphological response to UV-B irradiation after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Surv Ophthalmol 42Suppl 1:S64–S76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mamalis N (2003) Diffuse lamellar keratitis. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1849–1850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buhren J, Baumeister M, Kohnen T (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis imaged by confocal microscopy. Ophthalmology 108:1075–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gabison EE, Mourah S, Steinfels E et al (2005) Differential expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) in normal and ulcerated corneas: role in epithelio-stromal interactions and matrix metalloproteinase induction. Am J Pathol 166:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Taneri S, Koch JM, Melki SA, Azar DT (2005) Mitomycin-C assisted photorefractive keratectomy in the treatment of buttonholed laser in situ keratomileusis flaps associated with epithelial ingrowth. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2026–2030PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome C. Ramos-Esteban
    • 1
  • Steven Wilson
    • 1
  • Gustavo E. Tamayo
    • 2
  • J. Bradley Randleman
    • 3
  • R. Doyle Stulting
    • 3
  • Eric E. Gabison
    • 4
    • 5
  • Thanh Hoang-Xuan
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Cleveland ClinicEye InstituteClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Bogota Laser Refractive SurgeryBogotaColombia
  3. 3.Emory University Department of OphthalmologyAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Fondation Ophtalmologique A. de Rothschild and Bichat HospitalAPHPParis Cedex 19France
  5. 5.CNRS UMR 7149University Paris XIIParisFrance
  6. 6.University of Paris 7Paris
  7. 7.Cornea, External Diseases and Refractive Surgery Services Fondation Ophtalmologique A. de Rothschild and Bichat HospitalAPHPParis Cedex 19France

Personalised recommendations