Advertisement

LASIK: Early Postoperative Complications

  • José de la Cruz
  • Joelle Hallak
  • Dimitri Azar
  • Sandeep Jain
  • Marlane J. Brown
  • David R. Hardten
  • Elizabeth A. Davis
  • Richard L. Lindstrom
  • Sadeer B. Hannush
  • Michael W. Belin
  • Roger F. Steinert
  • Renato AmbrósioJr.
  • Daniela Jardim
  • Bruno M. Fontes
  • Bryan S. Sires
  • José L. Güell
  • Merce Morral
  • Oscar Gris
  • Javier Gaytan
  • Felicidad Manero

Abstract

  • Infection after LASIK surgery, although rare, may cause significant visual loss.

  • Infections presenting early after LASIK (with in 1 week) are commonly caused by gram-positive organisms, whereas delayed onset infections (presenting 2–3 weeks after LASIK) are commonly caused by atypical mycobacteria.

  • Persistence of interface inflammation or appearance of corneal infiltrate after LASIK should be presumed infectious unless proven otherwise.

  • Fungal infections should be considered in those cases lacking improvement after early broad-spectrum therapy, as they are associated with severe visual loss.

  • A high index of suspicion and aggressive management, which includes early lifting of the flap, scrapings for microbiological investigation, and irrigation, and aggressive antibiotic therapy, may lead to better outcomes.

Keywords

Refractive Surgery Epithelial Defect Meibomian Gland Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Infectious Keratitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Choi RY, Wilson SE (2001) Hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis: primary and secondary treatments are safe and effective. Cornea 20:388–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farah SG, Azar DT, Gurdal C et al (1998) Laser in situ keratomileusis: literature review of a developing technique. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:989–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ, Tervo T (2000) Postoperative inflammation, microbial complications, and wound healing following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 16:523–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ambrosio R Jr., Wilson SE (2001) Complications of laser in situ keratomileusis: etiology, prevention, and treatment. J Refract Surg 17:350–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garg P, Bansal AK, Sharma S et al (2001) Bilateral infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: a case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmology 108:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quiros PA, Chuck RS, Smith RE (1999) Infectious ulcerative keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 117:1423–1427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilson SE (1998) LASIK: management of common complications laser in situ keratomileusis Cornea 17:459–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Donnenfeld ED, Kim T, Holland EJ, Azar DT, Palmon FR, Rubenstein JB, Daya S, Yoo SH; American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery Cornea Clinical Committee. ASCRS white paper: management of infectious keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 10:2008–2011Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang MA, Jain S, Azar DT (2004) Infections following laser in situ keratomileusis: an integration of the published literature. Surv Ophthalmol 49:269–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacRae SM, Rich LF, Macaluso DC (2002) Treatment of interface keratitis with oral corticosteroids. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:454–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller D, Newton J, Alfonso E (2000) Surveillance and infection control standards for refractive surgery centers? ARVO abstract no. 1679Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pirzada WA, Kalaawry H (1997) Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia of −1 to −3.50 diopters. J Refract Surg 13:S425–S426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dada T, Sharma N, Dada VK et al (2000) Pneumococcal keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:460–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stulting RD, Carr JD, Thompson KP (1999) Complications of laser in situ keratomileusis for the correction of myopia. Ophthalmology 106:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Sakla HF, Abad JL (1997) Nocardial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 13:314–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin RT, Maloney RK (1999) Flap complications associated with lamellar refractive surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 127:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seedor JA, Shapiro DE, Ritterband DC, et al (2001) LASIK complication rates. ARVO abstract no. 2668Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gimbel HV, van Westengrugge JA, Penno EE (1999) Simultaneous bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis: safety and efficacy. Ophthalmology 106:1461–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kawesch GM, Kezirian GM (2000) Laser in situ keratomileusis for high myopia with the VISX star laser. Ophthalmology 107:653–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Price FW, Willes L, Price M (2001) A prospective, randomized comparison of the use versus non-use of topical corticosteroids after laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 108:1236–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    al-Reefy M (1999) Bacterial keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia. J Refract Surg 15:216–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alvarenga L, Freitas D, Holfing-Lima AL (2002) Infectious post-LASIK crystalline keratopathy caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cornea 21:426–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aras C, Ozdamar A, Bahcecioglu H et al (1998) Corneal interface abscess after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:156–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chung MS, Goldstein MH, Driebe WT Jr et al (2000) Fungal keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: a case report. Cornea 19:236–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chung MS, Goldstein MH, Driebe WT Jr et al (2000) Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis successfully treated with medical therapy and flap removal. Am J Ophthalmol 129:382–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cuello OH, Carolin MJ, Reviglio VE (2002) Rhodococcus globerulus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2235–2237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dada T, Sharma N, Dada VK et al (2000) Pneumococcal keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:460–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gelender H, Carter HL, Bowman B (2000) Mycobacterium keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 16:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giaconi J, Pham R, Ta CN (2002) Bilateral Mycobaterium abscessus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:887–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gupta V, Dada T, Vajpayee RB (2001) Polymicrobial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 17:147–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hovanesian JA, Faktorovich EG, Hoffbauer JD (1999) Bilateral bacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Ophthalmol 117:968–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karp KO, Hersh PS, Epstein RJ (2000) Delayed keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:925–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim EK, Lee DH, Lee K. et al (2000) Nocardia keratitis after traumatic detachment of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap. J Refract Surg 16:467–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim HM, Song JS, Han HS et al (1998) Streptococcal keratitis after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. Korean J Ophthalmol 12:108–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kouyoumdjian GA, Forstot SL, Durairaj VD et al (2001) Infectious keratitis after laser refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 108:1266–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuo IC, Margolis TP, Cevallos V (2001) Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 20:342–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lam DS, Leung AT, Wu JT (1999) Culture-negative ulcerative keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1004–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Levartovsky S, Rosenwasser G, Goodman D (2001) Bacterial keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 108:321–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maldonado MJ, Juberias JR, Moreno-Montanes J (2002) Extensive corneal epithelial defect associated with internal hordeolum after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1700–1702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moon SJ, Mann PM, Matoba AY (2003) Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a healthy patient with a history of LASIK surgery. Cornea 22:271–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mulhern MG, Condon PI, O’Keefe M (1997) Endophthalmitis after astigmatic myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 23:948–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parolini B, Marcon G, Panozzo GA (2001) Central necrotic lamellar inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 17:110–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ramirez M, Hernandez-Quintela E, Betran F et al (2002) Pneumococcal keratitis at the flap interface after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:550–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Read RW, Chuck RS, Rao NS (2000) Traumatic Acremonium atrogriseum keratitis following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 118:418–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reviglio V, Rodriguez ML, Picotti GS (1998) Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:357–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ritterband D, Kelly J, McNamara T (2002) Delayed-onset multifocal polymicrobial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:898–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rubinfeld RS, Negvesky GJ (2001) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ulcerative keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1523–1525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rudd JC, Moshirfar M (2001) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:471–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sridhar MS, Garg P, Bansal AK (2000) Aspergillus flavus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 129:802–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sridhar MS, Garg P, Bansal AK, et al (2000) Fungal keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:613–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Suresh PS, Rootman DS (2002) Bilateral infectious keratitis after a laser in situ keratomileusis enhancement procedure. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:720–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Verma S, Tuft SJ (2002) Fusarium solani keratitis following LASIK for myopia. Br J Ophthalmol 86:1190–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Watanabe H, Sato S, Maeda N (1997) Bilateral corneal infection as a complication of laser in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 115:1593–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Webber SK, Lawless MA, Sutton GL et al (1999) Staphylococcal infection under a LASIK flap. Cornea 18:361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Winthrop KL, Steinberg EB, Holmes G (2003) Epidemic and sporadic cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis associated with laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 135:223–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chandra NS, Torres MF, Winthrop KL (2001) Cluster of Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis cases following laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 132:819–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chang SW, Ashraf FM, Azar DT (2000) Wound healing patterns following perforation sustained during laser in situ keratomileusis. J Formos Med Assoc 99:635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Freitas D, Alvarenga L, Sampaio J (2003) An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infection after LASIK. Ophthalmology 110:276–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fulcher SFA, Fader RC, Rosa RH et al (2002) Delayed-onset mycobacterial keratitis after LASIK. Cornea 21:546–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Karp CL, Tuli SS, Yoo SH (2003) Infectious keratitis after LASIK. Ophthalmology 110:503–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pache M, Schipper I, Flammer J et al (2003) Unilateral fungal and mycobacterial keratitis after simultaneous laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 22:72–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Peng Q, Holzer MP, Kaufer PH (2002) Interface fungal infection after laser in situ keratomileusis presenting as diffuse lamellar keratitis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1400–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pushker N, Dada T, Sony P (2002) Microbial keratitis after lasik in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 18:280–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Solomon A, Karp CL, Miller D (2001) Mycobacterium interface keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 108:2201–2208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sharma N, Dada T, Dada VK et al (2001) Acute hemorrhagic keratoconjunctivitis after LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:344–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tripathi A (2000) Fungal keratitis after LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Patel NR, Reidy JJ, Gonzalez-Fernandez F (2005) Nocardia keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: clinicopathologic correlation. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2012–2015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chung SH, Roh MI, Park MS, Kong YT, Lee HK, Kim EK (2006) Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after LASIK with IntraLase femtosecond laser. Ophthalmologica 220:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hamam RN, Noureddin B, Salti HI, Haddad R, Khoury JM (2006) Recalcitrant post-LASIK Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis eradicated after the use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolone. Ophthalmology 113:950–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    John T, Velotta E (2005) Nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacterial keratitis after LASIK: current status and clinical implications. Cornea 24:245–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Solomon R, Donnenfeld ED, Azar DT, Holland EJ, Palmon FR, Pflugfelder SC, Rubenstein JB (2003) Infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: results of an ASCRS survey. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2001–2006PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Smith RJ, Maloney RK (1998) Diffuse lamellar keratitis: a new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 105:1721–1726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaufman SC (1999) Post LASIK interface keratitis, Sands of the Sahara syndrome, and microkeratome blades (letter). J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1004–1008Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaufman SC, Maitchouk DY, Chiou AG, Beuerman, RW (1998) Interface inflammation after laser in-situ keratomileusis—Sands of the Sahara Syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1589–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah MN, Misra M, Wihelmus KR, Koch DD (2000) Diffuse lamellar keratitis associated with epithelial defects after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1312–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peters NT, Iskander NG, Anderson PEE, Woods DE, Mo RA, Gimbel HV (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis: isolation of endotoxin and demonstration of the inflammatory potential in a rabbit model. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:917–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuhan KR, Nguyen L, Wachler BS (2002) Role of instrument cleaning and maintenance in the development of diffuse lamellar keratitis. Ophthalmology 1090:400–403; discussion 403–404Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levinger S, Landau D, Kremer I, Merin S, Aizenman I, Hirsch A, Douieb J, Bos T (2003) Wiping microkeratome blades with sterile 100% alcohol to prevent diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1947–1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim JY, Kim MJ, Kim TI, Choi HJ, Pak JH, Tchah H (2006) A femtosecond laser creates a stronger flap than a mechanical microkeratome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:599–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stonecipher K, Ignacio TS, Stonecipher M (2006) Advances in refractive surgery: microkeratome and femtosecond laser flap creation in relation to safety, efficacy, predictability, and biomechanical stability. Curr Opinion Ophthalmol 17:368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moilanen JA, Holopainen JM, Helinto M, Vesaluoma MH, Tervo TM (2004) Keratocyte activation and inflammation in diffuse lamellar keratitis after formation of an epithelial defect. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:341–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guo N, Zhou YH, Qu J, Pan ZQ, Wang L (2006) [Evaluation of diffuse lamellar keratitis after LASIK with confocal microscopy]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 42:330–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buhren J, Cichocki M, Baumeister M, Kohnen T (2002) Diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Clinical and confocal microscopy findings. Ophthalmology 99:176–180Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bigham M, Enns CL, Holland SP et al (2005) Diffuse lamellar keratitis complicating laser in situ keratomileusis: post-marketing surveillance of an emerging disease in British Columbia, Canada, 2000–2002. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2340–2344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jin GJ, Lyle WA, Merkley KH (2005) Late-onset idiopathic diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:435–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buxey K (2004) Delayed onset diffuse lamellar keratitis following enhancement LASIK surgery. Clin Exp Optom 87102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gris O, Guell JL, Wolley-Dod C, Adan A (2004) Diffuse lamellar keratitis and corneal edema associate with viral keratoconjunctivitis 2 years after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1366–1370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Linebarger EJ, Hardten DR, Lindstrom RL (2003) Diffuse lamellar keratitis: recognition and management. In: Buratto L, Brint SF (eds) Custom LASIK surgical techniques and complications. Slack, Thorofare, N.J., pp 745–750Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoffman RS, Fine IH, Packer M (2003) Incidence and outcomes of LASIK with diffuse lamellar keratitis treated with topical and oral corticosteroids. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cimberle Michael (2006) (Munoz, Gonzalo) (Report on Alicante International Refractive Meeting) Retinal detachment rates for lens exchange, phakic IOLs comparable. Ocular Surgery News, 15 June 2006, pp 3–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stonecipher KG, Dishler JG, Ignacio TS, Binder PS (2006) Transient light sensitivity after femtosecond laser flap creation: clinical findings and management. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hamilton DR, Manche EE, Rich LF, Maloney RK (2002) Steroid induced glaucoma after laser in situ keratomileusis associated with interface fluid. Ophthalmology 109:659–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ, Tervo T (2000) Postoperative inflammation, microbial complications, and wound healing following Laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refractive Surg 16:523–538Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Smith RJ, Maloney RK (1998) Diffuse lamellar keratitis: a new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 105:1721–1726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaufman SC, Maitchouk DY, Chiou AGY, Beuerman RW (1998) Interface inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis. Sands of the Sahara syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1589–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linebarger EJ, Hardten DR, Lindstrom RL (2000) Diffuse lamellar keratitis: diagnosis and management. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1072–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holland SP, Mathias RG, Morck DW et al (2000) Diffuse lamellar keratitis related to endotoxins released from sterilizer reservoir biofilms. Ophthalmology 107:1227–1233; discussion 1233–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang-Godinich A, Steinert RF, Wu HK (2001) Late occurrence of diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 119:1074–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keszei VA (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis associated with iritis 10 months after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1126–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harrison DA, Periman LM (2001) Diffuse lamellar keratitis associ ated with recurrent corneal erosions after laser in situ kerato mileusis. J Refract Surg 17:463–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rehany U, Bersudsky V, Rumelt S (2000) Paradoxical hypotony after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1823–1826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Najman-Vainer J, Smith RJ, Maloney RK (2000) Interface fluid after LASIK: misleading tonometry can lead to end-stage glaucoma [letter]. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:471–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parekh JG, Raviv T, Speaker MG (2001) Grossly false applanation tonometry associated with interface fluid in susceptible LASIK patients [letter]. J Cataract Refract Surg 27: 1143–1144Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Belin MW, Hannush SB, Yau CW, Schultze RL (2002) Elevated intraocular pressure-induced interlamellar stromal keratitis. Ophthalmology 109:1929–1933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davidson RS, Brandt ID, Mannis MJ (2003) Intraocular pressure-induced interlamellar keratitis after LASIK surgery. Glaucoma 12:23–26Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng AC, Law RW, Young AL, Lam DS (2004) In vivo confocal microscopic findings in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma after LASIK. Ophthalmology 111:768–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurian M, Shetty R, Shetty BK, Devi SA (2006) In vivo confocal microscopic findings of interlamellar stromal keratopathy induced by elevated intraocular pressure. Cataract Refract Surg 32:1563–1566Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nordlund MI, Grimm S, Lane S, Holland EJ (2004) Pressureinduced interface keratitis: a late complication following LASIK. Cornea 23:225–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galal A, Artola A, Belda I, Rodriguez-Prats I, Claramonte P, Sanchez A, Ruiz-Morenao O, Meravo I, Alió J (2006) Interface corneal edema secondary to steroid-induced elevation of intraocular pressure simulating diffuse lamellar keratitis. J Refract Surg 22:441–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frucht-Pery J, Landau D, Raiskup F, Orucov F, Strassman E, Blumenthal EZ, Solomon A (2007) Early transient visual acuity loss after LASIK due to streroid-induced elevation of intraocular pressure. J Refractive Surgery 23:244–251Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Mackool RJ, Monsanto VR (2003) Sequential liftand suture technique for post-LASIK corneal striae. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:785–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jackson DW, Hamill MB, Koch DD (2003) Laser in situ keratomileusis flap suturing to treat recalcitrant flap striae. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:264–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lam DSC, Leung ATS, Wu JT et al (1999) Management of severe flap wrinkling or dislodgement after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1441–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rabinowitz YS, Rasheed K (1999) Fluorescein test for the detection of striae in the corneal flap after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 127:717–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charman WN (2002) Mismatch between flap and stromal areas after laser in situ keratomileusis as source of flap striae J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2146–2152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lin JC, Rapuano CJ, Cohen EJ (2003) RK4 lens fitting for a flap striae in a LASIK patient. Eye Contact Lens 29:76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Araki-Sasaki K, Tsumura T, Kinoshita T et al (2002) Corneal remodeling by hard contact lenses to manage microstriae after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2050–2053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Solomon R, Donnenfeld ED, Perry HD et al (2003) Slitlamp stretching of the corneal flap after laser in situ keratomileusis to reduce corneal striae. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1292–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lyle WA, Lin GJC (2000) Results of flap repositioning after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1451–1457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fox ML, Harmer E. Therapeutic flap massage for microstriae after laser in situ keratomileusis (2004) Treatment technique and implications. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hernandez-Matamoros J, Iradier MT, Moreno E (2001) Treating folds and striae after laser in situ kertomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:350–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Donnenfeld ED, Perry HD, Doshi SJ et al (2004) Hyperthermic treatment of post-LASIK corneal striae. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:620–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steinert RF, Ashrafzadeh A, Hersh PS (2004) Results of phototherapeutic keratectomy in management of flap striae after LASIK. Ophthalmology 111:740–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ashrafzadeh A, Steinert RF (2007) Results of phototherapeutic keratectomy in the management of flap striae after LASIK before and after developing a standardized protocol: long term follow-up in an expanded patient population. Ophthalmology 114:1118–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Munoz G, Alio JL, Perez-Santonja JJ et al (2000) Successful treatment of severe wrinkled corneal flap after laser in situ keratomileusis with deionized water. Am J Ophthalmol 129:91–92PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Adan CB, Sato EH, Sousa LB, Oliveira RS, Leao SC, Freitas D (2004) An experimental model of mycobacterial infection under corneal flaps. Braz J Med Biol Res 37:1015–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alio JL, Perez-Santonja JJ, Tervo T, Tabbara KF, Vesaluoma M, Smith RJ, Maddox B, Maloney RK (2000) Postoperative inflammation, microbial complications, and wound healing following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 16:523–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ambrósio Jr R, Stelzner S, Boerner C, Honan P, McIntyre DJ (2002) Nutritional treatment of dry eye: lipids. Rev Refract Surg 3:29–35Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ambrósio R Jr, Periman LM, Netto MV, Wilson SE (2003) Bilateral marginal sterile infiltrates and diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 19:154–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ambrósio R Jr, Wilson S (2003) LASIK vs LASEK vs PRK: advantages and indications. Semin Ophthalmol 18:2–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ambrósio R Jr, Wilson SE (2001) Complications of laser in situ keratomileusis: etiology, prevention, and treatment. J Refract Surg 17:350–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arshinoff SA, Mills MD, Haber S (1996) Pharmacotherapy of photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:1037–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chiou AG, Kaufman SC, Kaufman HE, Beuerman RW (2006) Clinical corneal confocal microscopy. Surv Ophthalmol 51:482–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dogru M, Stern ME, Smith JA, Foulks GN, Lemp MA, Tsubota K (2005) Changing trends in the definition and diagnosis of dry eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 140:507–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duffey RJ, Leaming D (2005) US trends in refractive surgery: 2004 ISRS/AAO Survey 21:742–748Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haw WW, Manche EE (1999) Sterile peripheral keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 15:61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holland EJ, Schwartz GS (1999) Classification of herpes simplex virus keratitis. Cornea 18:144–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hong JW, Liu JJ, Lee JS, Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Woods DJ, He YG, Wilson SE (2001) Proinflammatory chemokine induction in keratocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration into the cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:2795–2803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim JY, Choi YS, Lee JH (1997) Keratitis from corneal anesthetic abuse after photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 23:447–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ku EC, Lee W, Kothari HV, Scholer DW (1986) Effect of diclofenac sodium on the arachidonic acid cascade. Am J Med 80:18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lahners WJ, Hardten DR, Lindstrom RL (2003) Peripheral keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 19:671–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Levy J, Lapid-Gortzak R, Klemperer I, Lifshitz T (2005) Herpes simplex virus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 21:400–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lifshitz T, Levy J, Mahler O, Levinger S (2005) Peripheral sterile corneal infiltrates after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1392–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Melki SA, Azar DT (2001) LASIK complications: etiology, management, and prevention. Surv Ophthalmol 46:95–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miljanovic B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA (2005) Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr 82:887–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mohan RR, Hutcheon AE, Choi R, Hong J, Lee J, Mohan RR, Ambrosio R Jr, Zieske JD, Wilson SE (2003) Apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation, and myofibroblast generation in the stroma following LASIK and PRK. Exp Eye Res 76:71–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mondino BJ, Adamu SA, Pitchekian-Halabi H (1991) Antibody studies in a rabbit model of corneal phlyctenulosis and catarrhal infiltrates related to Staphylococcus aureus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 32:1854–1863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mondino BJ (1998) Inflammatory diseases of the peripheral cornea. Ophthalmology 95:463–472Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Netto MV, Mohan RR, Ambrosio R Jr, Hutcheon AE, Zieske JD, Wilson SE (2005) Wound healing in the cornea: a review of refractive surgery complications and new prospects for therapy. Cornea 24:509–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pepose JS, Laycock KA, Miller JK, Chansue E, Lenze EJ, Gans LA, Smith ME (1992) Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus by excimer laser photokeratectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 114:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rao SK, Fogla R, Rajagopal R, Sitalakshmi G, Padmanabhan P (2000) Bilateral corneal infiltrates after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:456–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robin JB, Dugel R, Robin SB. Immunologic disorders of the cornea and conjunctiva (1999) In: Kaufman HB, Barron BA, McDonald MB (eds) The cornea, 2nd edn, on CD-Rom. Butterworth-Heinemann, Newton, Mass.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sall K, Stevenson OD, Mundorf TK, Reis BL (2000) Two multicenter, randomized studies of the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in moderate to severe dry eye disease. CsA Phase 3 Study Group. Ophthalmology 107:631–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sher NA, Krueger RR, Teal P, Jans RG, Edmison D (1994) Role of topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the etiology of stromal infiltrates after excimer photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Corneal Surg 10:587–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singhal S, Sridhar MS, Garg P (2005) Bilateral peripheral infiltrative keratitis after LASIK. J Refract Surg 21:402–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith RJ, Maloney RK (1998) Diffuse lamellar keratitis. A new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 105:1721–1726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tahzib NG, Bootsma SJ, Eggink FA, Nabar VA, Nuijts RM (2005) Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction after laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1943–1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Teal P, Breslin C, Arshinoff S, Edmison D (1995) Corneal subepithelial infiltrates following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 21:516–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Teichmann KD, Cameron J, Huaman A, Rahi AH, Badr I (1996) Wessely-type immune ring following phototherapeutic keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilson SE, Ambrosio R (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 132:405–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilson SE, Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Ambrosio R Jr, Hong J, Lee J (2001) The corneal wound healing response: cytokine-mediated interaction of the epithelium, stroma, and inflammatory cells. Prog Retin Eye Res 20:625–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wilson SE, Netto M, Ambrosio R Jr (2003) Corneal cells: chatty in development, homeostasis, wound healing, and disease. Am J Ophthalmol 136:530–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilson SE (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced (presumed) neurotrophic epitheliopathy. Ophthalmology 108:1082–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yu EY, Rao SK, Cheng AC, Law RW, Leung AT, Lam DS (2002) Bilateral peripheral corneal infiltrates after simultaneous myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:891–894PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmadi A, Saari J, Mozaffarian D et al (2005) Decreased carotenoid content in preaponeurotic orbital fat of patients with involutional ptosis. Ophthalmol Plast Reconstr Surg 21:46–51Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutton JJ (1994) The eyelids and the anterior orbit. In: Dutton JJ (ed) Atlas of clinical and surgical orbital anatomy. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Epstein G, Putterman AM (1981) Acquired blepharoptosis secondary to contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol 91:634–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frueh BR, Musch DC, McDonald HM (2004) Efficacy and efficiency of a small-incision, minimal dissection procedure versus a traditional approach for correcting aponeurotic ptosis. Ophthalmology 111:2158–2163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hall A (1945) The origin and purpose of blinking. Br J Ophthalmol 29:455–467Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kersten RC, de Conciliis C, Kulwin DR (1995) Acquired ptosis in the young and middle-aged adult population. Ophthalmology 102:924–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lucarelli MJ, Lemke BN (1999) Small incision external levator repair: technique and early results. Am J Ophthalmol 127:637–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lyon DB, Gonnering RS, Dortzbach RK et al (1993) Unilateral ptosis and eye dominance. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 9:237–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sires BS, Saari J, Garwin GG et al (2001) The color difference in orbital fat. Arch Ophthalmol 119:868–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wantanabe A, Araki B, Noso K et al (2006) Histopathology of blepharoptosis caused by prolonged hard contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol 141:1092–1096Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Waring GO III, Rodrigues MM (1987) Patterns of pathologic response in the cornea. Surv Opthalmol 31:262–266Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lam DS, Leung AT, Wu JT, Fan DS, Cheng AC, Wang Z (1999) Culture-negative ulcerative keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1004–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vivino FB, Minerva P, Huang CH, Orlin SE (2001) Corneal melt as the initial presentation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol 28:379–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paroli MP, Pinca M, Speranza S, Marino M, Pivetti-Pezzi P (2003) Paracentral corneal melting in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada’s syndrome, psoriasis, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 11:309–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Su WY, Chang SW, Huang SF (2003) Amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal perforation related to vitamin A deficiency. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imagining 34:140–144Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beele H, Claerhout I, Kestelyn P, Dierckxens L, Naeyaert JM, De Laey JJ (2001) Bilateral corneal melting in a patient with paraneoplastic pemphigus. Dermatology 202:147–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu SM, Su J, Hemady RK (1997) Corneal melting after ablationn of a Molteno shunt plate. J Glaucoma 6:357–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nishida T, Nakamura M, Konma T, Ofuji K, Nagano K, Tanaka T, Enoki M, Reid TW, Brown SM, Murphy CJ, Manis MJ (1997) Neurotrophic keratopathy—studies on substance P and the clinical significance of corneal sensation. NipOn Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 101:948–74Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spelsberg H, Sundmacher R (2005) Significance of immediate affixation of a hard contact lens in the emergency treatment of severe alkali burns of the cornea (case report) Klin Monatsbl Augenhelilkd 222:905–909Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vote BJ, Elder MJ (2000) Cyanoacrylate glue for corneal perforations: a description of a surgical technique and a review of the literature. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 28:437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xi XH, Cao YN, Tang LS, Qin B, Jiang DY (2004) Corneal combined amniotic membrane transplantation for early severe alkali chemical injury of the eye. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 29:704–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ma DH, Wang SF, Su WY, Tsai RJ (2002) Amniotic membrane graft for the management of scleral melting and corneal perforation in recalcitrant infectious scleral and corneoscleral ulcers. Cornea 21:275–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soong HK, Farjo AA, Katz D, Meyer RF, Sugar A (2000) Lamellar corneal patch grafts in the management of corneal melting. Cornea 19:126–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Su CY, Lin CP (2000) Combined use of an amniotic membrane and tissue adhesive in treating corneal perforation: a case report. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 31:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McElvanney AM (2003) Doxycycline in the management of pseudomonas corneal melting: two case reports and a review of the literature. Eye Contact Lens 29:258–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Celia R Hicks, Geoffrey J Crawford (2003) Melting after keratoprosthesis implantation: the effects of medroxyprogesterone. Cornea 22:497–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dudenhoefer EJ, Nouri M, Gipson IK, Baratz KH, Tisdale AS, Dryja TP, Abad JC, Dohlman CH (2003) Histopathology of explanted collar button keratoprostheses: a clinicopathologic correlation. Cornea 22:424–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ly Y, Li HY (2005) Analysis of clinical characteristics and risk factors of corneal melting after laser in situ keratomileusis. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 41:330–334Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castillo A, Diaz-Valle D, Gutierrez AR, Toledano N, Romero F (1998) Peripheral melt of flap after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alió JL, Artola A, Belda JI, Perez Santonja JJ, Munoz G, Javaloy J, Rodriguez-Prats JL, Galal A (2005) LASIK in patients with rheumatic diseases: a pilot study. Ophthalmology 112:1948–1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith RJ, Maloney RK (2006) Laser in situ keratomileusis in patients with autoimmune disease. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1292–1295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kohnen T (2006) Excimer laser refractive surgery in autoimmune disease (Letter to the Editor). J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cobo-Soriano R, Beltran J, Baviera J (2006) LASIK outcomes in patients with underlying systemic contraindications: a preliminary study. Ophthalmology 113:e1–e8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Du Z, Guo H, Zheng Q (2001) Immunohistochemical and clinical studies on sub-corneal flap epithelial implantation accompanied by flap melting after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 37:84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lu KL, Wee WR, Sakamoto T, McDonnell PJ (1996) Comparison of in vitro antiproliferative effects of steroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on human keratocytes. Cornea 15:185–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nguyen KD, Lee DA (1992) Effects of steroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents on human ocular fibroblast. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33:2693–2701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nguyen KD, Lee DA (1993) In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative potential of topical cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in human Tenon’s fibroblast. Exp Eye Res 57:97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nassaralla B, Szerenyi K, Wang Xw et al (1995) Effect of diclofenac on corneal haze after photorefractive keratectomy in rabbits. Ophthalmology 102:469–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Joseph KW, Hsu, W Todd Johnston, Russell W Read, Peter J McDonnell, Rey Pangalinan, Narsing Rao, Ronald E Smith (2003) Histopathology of corneal melting associated with diclofenac use after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hsu JK, Johnston WT, Read RW, McDonnel PJ, Pangalinan R, Rao N, Smith RE (2003) Histopathology of corneal melting associated with diclofenac use after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flach AJ (2001) Corneal melts associated with topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 99:205–210; discussion 210–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tatsuhiko Asai, Tetsushi Nakagami, Mina Mochizuki, Norimasa Hata, Takako Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro Hotta (2006) Three cases of corneal melting after instillation of a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. Cornea 25:224–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gabison EE, Chastang P, Menashi S, Mourah S, Doan S, Oster M, Mauviel A, Hoang-Xuan T (2003) Late corneal perforation after photorefractive keratectomy associated with topical diclofenac: involvement of matrix metalloproteinases. Ophthalmology 110:1626–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lam DS, Leung AT, Wu JT, Cheng AC, Fan DS, Rao SK, Talamo JH, Barraquer C (1999) Management of severe flap wrinkling or dislodgment after laser in situ keratomuleusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1441–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hargrave SL, Jung JC, Fini ME, Gelender H, Catre C, Guidera A, Udell I, Fisher S, Jester JV, Bowman RW, McCulley JP, Cavanagh HD (2002) Possible role of the vitamin E solubilizer in topical diclofenac on matrix metalloproteinase expression in corneal melting: an analysis of postoperative keratolysis. Ophthalmology 109:343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Ayala MJ, Sakla HF, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Alió JL (1999) Retreatment after laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 106:21–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alió JL, Galal A, Artola A, Ayala MJ, Merayo J (2006) Hyperopic LASIK retreatments with the Technolas laser. J Refract Surg 22:596–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Patel NR, Reidy JJ, Gonzalez-Fernandez F (2005) Nocardia keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: clinicopathologic correlation. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2012–2015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kuo IC, Margolis TP, Cevallos V, Hwang DG (2001) Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 20:342–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Galal A, Cardona C, Artola A, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Alió JL (2005) Severe corneal epithelial sloughing during laser in situ keratomileusis as a presenting sign for silent epithelial basement membrane dystrophy. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1932–1937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    De Rojas Silva MV, Diez Feijo E, Rodriguez Ares MT, Sanchez-Salorio M (2004) Confocal microscopy of stage 4 diffuse lamellar keratitis with spontaneous resolution. J Refract Surg 20:391–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lin JM, Tsai Y, tseng SH (2005) Spontaneous regression of dense epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 21:300–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Medrano M, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Cardona-Ausina C, Alió L (2001) Circular flap rhexis: a refinement technique for LASIK re-treatment. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 76:303–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Azar DT, Scally A, Hannush SB, Soukiasian S, Terry M (2003) Characteristic clinical findings and visual outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2358–2365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yang B, Wang Z, Chen J (2001) The management of epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis. Chin Med Sci J 16:241–243PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • José de la Cruz
    • 1
  • Joelle Hallak
    • 2
  • Dimitri Azar
    • 2
  • Sandeep Jain
    • 1
  • Marlane J. Brown
    • 3
  • David R. Hardten
    • 4
  • Elizabeth A. Davis
    • 3
    • 5
  • Richard L. Lindstrom
    • 3
    • 5
  • Sadeer B. Hannush
    • 6
    • 7
  • Michael W. Belin
    • 8
  • Roger F. Steinert
    • 9
  • Renato AmbrósioJr.
    • 10
    • 11
  • Daniela Jardim
    • 11
  • Bruno M. Fontes
    • 11
    • 12
  • Bryan S. Sires
    • 13
  • José L. Güell
    • 14
  • Merce Morral
    • 14
  • Oscar Gris
    • 14
  • Javier Gaytan
    • 14
  • Felicidad Manero
    • 14
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Illinois Eye and Ear InfirmaryUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Illinois Eye and Ear InfirmaryUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Minnesota Eye ConsultantsMinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Minnesota Eye InstituteMinneapolisUSA
  5. 5.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  6. 6.Department of OphthalmologyWills Eye HospitalPhiladelphia
  7. 7.Cornea Consultants of AlbanySlingerlandsUSA
  8. 8.Albany Medical CollegeCornea Consultants of AlbanySlingerlandsUSA
  9. 9.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA
  10. 10.Department of OphthalmologyFluminense Federal UniversityNiteróiBrazil
  11. 11.Instituto de Olhos Renato AmbrósioVisare Personal Laser & Refracta-RIORio de JaneiroBrazil
  12. 12.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of São Paulo “Escola Paulista de Medicina”São PauloBrazil
  13. 13.Allure Facial Laser and MedispaUniversity of WashingtonKirklandUSA
  14. 14.Departamento de CorneaInstituto de Microcirugía OcularBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations