Advertisement

Phakic Intraocular Lens Complications

  • Orkun Muftuoglu
  • Jorge L. Alió
  • Antonio A P. Marinho
  • Carlo F. Lovisolo
  • Fabio Mazzolani

Abstract

  • Intraoperative complications and their management

  • Early postoperative complications and their management

  • The complications of different types of AS-PIOLs

  • Complications that may lead to explantation of the AS-PIOLs

  • Explantation techniques of AS-PIOLs

  • Prevention of complications
    • Surgical technique

    • AS-PIOL design

    • Anterior imaging and appropriate AS-PIOL sizing

Keywords

Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens High Myopia Crystalline Lens Anterior Chamber Depth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dannheim H (1962) Types of AC lenses with elastic loops. Ann Inst Barraquer 3:570–2, 1962Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baron A (1953) Tolérance de l’oeil a’la matière plastique: prothéses optiques cornéennes, prothéses optique cristalliniennes. Bull Soc Ophthalmol Fr 9:982–988Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strampelli B (1958) Lentilles camerulaires apres 6 annees d’experience. Acta Conc Ophthalmol Belgica 11:1692–1698Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barraquer J (1959) AC plastic lenses. Results and conclusions from five years experience. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 79:242–393Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drews RC (1982) The Barraquer experience with intraocular lenses: 20 years later. Ophthalmology 89:386–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Waring GO III (1998) Comparison of refractive corneal surgery and phakic IOLs. J Refract Surg 14:277–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hosny M, Alió JL, Claramonte P et al (2000) Relationship between AC depth, refractive state, corneal diameter, and axial length. J Refract Surg 16:336–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baikoff G, Arne JL, Bokobza Y et al (1998) Angle-fixated AC phakic intraocular lens for myopia of −7 to −19 diopters. J Refract Surg 14:282–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pérez-Santonja JJ, Alió JL, Jiménez-Alfaro I, Zato MA (2000) Surgical correction of severe myopia with an angle-supported phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1288–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Iradier MT, Sanz-Iglesias L et al (1996) Endothelial changes in phakic eyes with AC intraocular lenses to correct high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:1017–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Hernandez JL, Benitez del Castillo JM et al (1994) Fluorophotometry in myopic phakic eyes with AC intraocular lenses to correct severe myopia. Am J Ophthalmol 118:316–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alió JL, de la Hoz F, Ismail M (1993) Subclinical inflammatory reactions induced by phakic AC lens for the correction of high myopia. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alió JL, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Artola A (1993) Retinal detachment as a potential hazard in surgical correction of severe myopia with phakic AC lenses. Am J Ophthalmol 115:145–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pérez-Santonja JJ, Ruíz-Moreno JM, de la Hoz F et al (1999) Endophthalmitis after phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:1295–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alió JL, de la Hoz F, Perez-Santonja JJ et al (1999) Phakic AC lenses for the correction of myopia: a 7-year cumulative analysis of complications in 263 cases. Ophthalmology 106:458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levisolo CF, Reinstein DZ (2005) Phakic intraocular lenses. Surv Ophthalmol 50:549–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufman HE, Kaufman SC (2004) Phakic intraocular lenses-where are we now? In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 5–12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elies D, Coret A (2004) GBR/Vivarte Angle-supported foldable phakic IOL. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 121–127Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferreira de Souza R, Allemann N, Forseto A et al (2003) Ultrasound biomicroscopy and Scheimpflug photography of angle-supported phakic intraocular lens for high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1159–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garcia-Feijoó J, Hernández-Matamoros JL, Castillo-Gómez A et al (2003) High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of silicone posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1940–1946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jiménez-Alfaro I, García-Feijoó J, Pérez-Santonja JJ, Cuiña R (2001) Ultrasound biomicroscopy of ZSAL-4 AC phakic intraocular lens for high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1567–1573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colin J (2000) Bilensectomy: the implications of removing phakic intraocular lenses at the time of cataract extraction. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:2–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alió JL, de la Hoz F, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Salem TF (2000) Cataract surgery in highly myopic eyes corrected by phakic AC angle-supported lenses. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1303–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mamalis N, Davis B, Nilson CD et al (2004) Complications of foldable intraocular lenses requiring explantation or secondary intervention-2003 survey update. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:2209–2218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schmidbauer JM, Peng Q, Apple DJ et al (2002) Rates and causes of intraoperative removal of foldable and rigid intraocular lenses: clinicopathological analysis of 100 cases. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1223–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Iradier MT, Moreno E, Hoyos-Chacon J. Baikoff (2004) (ZB, ZB5M, NuVita) angle-supported phakic IOLs. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and clinical practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 83–93Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baikoff G, Arne JL, Bokobza Y et al (1998) Angle-fixated AC phakic intraocular lens for myopia of −7 to −19 diopters. J Refract Surg 14:282–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saragoussi JJ, Cotinat J, Renard G et al (1991) Damage to the corneal endothelium by minus power AC intraocular lenses. Refract Corneal Surg 7:277–285Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Alió JL (2004) ZSAL-4 and ZSAL-4/PLUS angle supported phakic IOLs. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and clinical practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 95–107Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Iradier MT, Benitez del Castillo JM et al (1996) Chronic subclinical inflammation in phakic eyes with intraocular lenses to correct myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gould HL, Galin M (2004) Phakic 6H angle-supported phakic IOL. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and clinical practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 109–120Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Galin MA, Gould HL (2000) Angle supported phakic AC lenses. Operative techniques. Cataract Refractive Surgery 3:43Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alió JL, Abdelrahman AM, Javaloy J et al (2006) Angle-supported AC phakic intraocular lens explantation. Ophthalmology 113:2213–2220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elies D, Coret A (2004) GBR/Vivarte angle-supported foldable phakic IOL. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and clinical practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 121–127Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kelman CD (2004) The Kelman DUET angle-supported phakic IOL. In: Alió JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs: fundamentals and clinical practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of Panama, pp 128–133Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Alió JL, Piñhero D (2007) Long-term complications of Kelman-Duet phakic intraocular lens. J Refractive Surgery (in press)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Werblin TP (1993) Long-term endothelial cell loss following phacoemulsification: model for evaluating endothelial damage after intraocular surgery. Refract Corneal Surg 9:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alió JL, Rodríguez-Prats JL, Galal A, Ramzy M (2005) Out-comes of microincision cataract surgery versus coaxial phacoemulsification. Ophthalmology 112:1997–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baikoff G (2006) Anterior segment OCT and phakic intraocular lenses: a perspective. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1827–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim DY, Reinstein DZ, Silverman RH et al (1998) Very high frequency ultrasound analysis of a new phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens in situ. Am J Ophthalmol 125:725–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ferreira de Souza R, Allemann N, Forseto A et al (2003) Ultrasound biomicroscopy and Scheimpflug photography of angle-supported phakic intraocular lens for high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1159–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boker T, Sheqem J, Rauwolf M, Wegener A (1995) AC angle biometry: a comparison of Scheimpflug photography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ophthalmic Res 27(Suppl):104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Werner L, Izak AM, Pandey SK et al (2004) Correlation between different measurements within the eye relative to phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1982–1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reinstein DZ, Archer TJ, Silverman RH, Coleman DJ (2006) Accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scan lateral dimension measurements. J Cataract Refract Surg 23:1799–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garcia-Feijoó J, Hernández-Matamoros JL, Castillo-Gomez A et al (2003) High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of silicone posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1940–1946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Garcia-Feijoó J, Hernández-Matamoros JL, Mendez-Hernandez C et al (2003) Ultrasound biomicroscopy of silicone posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1932–1939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Izatt JA, Hee MR, Swanson EA et al (1994) Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol 112:1584–1589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rondeau MJ, Barcsay G, Silverman RH et al (2004) Very high frequency ultrasound biometry of the anterior and posterior chamber diameter. J Refract Surg 20:454–464PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Ophtec (2004) Lens power calculation and critical distance. ARTISAN phakic IOL training manual. Ophtec BV, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Budo C (2004) Clinical results. In: Budo C (ed) The ARTISAN Lens. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Budo C (2004) Complications. In: Budo C (ed) The ARTISAN lens. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Budo C (2004) Surgical procedures. In: Budo C (2004) The ARTISAN Lens. In: Budo C (ed) The ARTISAN lens. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Budo C (2004) Types of lenses and applications. In: Budo C (ed) The ARTISAN lens. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Izak M, Izak A (2004) Inflammatory reaction associated with ARTISAN phakic refractive IOL implantation. In: Budo C (ed) The ARTISAN lens. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marinho A (2005) ARTIFLEX: a new phakic IOL. In: Garg A, Pandey S, Chang D et al (eds) Advances in ophthalmology 2. Jaypee Brothers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marinho A, ARTIFLEX: a new phakic IOL. In: Garg A, Pandey S, Chang D et al (eds) Advances in ophthalmology 2. Jaypee Brothers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marinho A, Salgado R (2005) Complications of phakic IOLs. In: Garg A, Alió J, Marinho A et al (eds) Lens-based refractive surgery (phakic IOLs). Jaypee Brothers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marinho A, Salgado R (2005) Toric Phakic IOLs. In: Garg A, Alió J, Marinho A et al (eds) Lens-based refractive surgery (phakic IOLs). Jaypee Brothers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alió J et al (1999) Phakic anterior chamber lenses for the correction of myopia: a 7 year cumulative analysis of complications in 263 cases. Ophthalmology 106:458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bartels M, Santana N, Budo C et al (2006) Toric phakic intraocular lens for the correction of hyperopia and astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Budo C, Hessloehl J, Izak M (2000) Multicenter study of the ARTISAN phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1163–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dick H, Alió J, Bianchetti M et al (2003) Toric phakic intraocular lens: European multicenter study. Ophthalmology 110:150–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fechner P, van der Hejde G, Worst J (1989) The correction of myopia by lens implantation into phakic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 107:659–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fechner P, Wichman W (1993) Correction of myopia by implantation of minus optic (worst iris claw) lenses in the anterior chamber of phakic eyes. Eur J Imp Ref Surg 5:55–59Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Izak M (1998) Surgical trauma not lens design is responsible for myopia claw IOL irritation. Ocular Surgery News 9:38Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marinho A (2006) Phakic IOLs: what could go wrong? Ophthalmol Times 2:29–33Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Menezo JL, Cisneros A, Cervera M et al (1994) Iris claw phakic lens immediate and long-term corneal endothelial changes. Eur J Implant Refract Surg 6:195–199Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Menezo JL, Cisneros A, Rodriguez-Salvador V (1998) Endothelial study of iris claw phakic lens. Four-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1039–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Menezo JL, Peris-Martinez C, Cisneros A et al (2004) Rate of cataract formation in 343 highly myopic eyes after implantation of three types of phakic intraocular lenses. J Refract Surg 20:317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perez-Santonja J, Iradier M, Sanz-Iglesias L et al (1996) Endothelial changes in phakic eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lenses to correct high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:1017–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tehrani M, Dick H (2005) Short-term follow-up after implantation of a foldable iris-fixated intraocular lens in phakic eyes. Ophthalmology 112:2189–2195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Albirsk PH (1976) Primary angle-closure glaucoma. Oculometry, epidemiology and genetics in a high-risk population. Acta Ophthalmol 54:127–135Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aliò J L, de la Hoz F, Ismail MM (1993) Subclinical inflammatory reaction induced by phakic anterior chamber lenses for the correction of high myopia. Ocular Immun Inflamm 1:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aliò JL, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Artola A (1993) Retinal detachment as a potential hazard in surgical correction of severe myopia with phakic anterior chamber lenses. Am J Ophthalmol 115:143–148Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aliò JL, de la Hoz F, Perez-Santonja JJ (1999) Phakic anterior chamber lenses for the correction of myopia: a seven years cumulative analysis of complications in 263 cases. Ophthalmology 106:448–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aliò JL, Mulet ME, Shalaby AM (2002) Artisan phakic iris claw intraocular lens for high primary and secondary hyperopia. J Refract Surg 18:697–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arne JL, Lesueur LC (2000) Phakic posterior chamber lenses for high myopia: functional and anatomical outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arne JL, Lesueur LC, Hulin HH (2003) Photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis for residual refractive error after phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:1167–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Assetto V, Benedetti S, Pesando PM (1996) Collamer intraocular contact lens to correct high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barraquer J (1959) Anterior chamber plastic lenses. Results and conclusions from five years experience. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 79:393–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Battle J (2004) Toric phakic IOL may be alternative for treating keratoconus. Ophthalmology Times Meeting E-News. Available via http://www.ophthalmologytimes.com/ophthalmologytimesGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benitez del Castillo JM, Hernandez JL, Iradier MT et al (1993) Fluorophotometry in phakic eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation to correct myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 16:607–609Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brandt JD, Mockovak ME, Chayet A (2001) Pigmentary dispersion syndrome induced by a posterior chamber phakic refractive lens. Am J Ophthalmol 131:260–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Budo C, Hessloehl JC, Izak M et al (2000) Multicenter study of the Artisan phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1163–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bylsma SS, Zalta AH, Foley E et al (2002) Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens pupillary block. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2222–2228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coakes RL, Lloyd-Jones D, Hitchings RA (1979) Anterior chamber volume. Its measurement and clinical application. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 99:78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dejaco-Ruhswurm I, Scholz U, Pieh S et al (2002) Long-term endothelial changes in phakic eyes with posterior chamber intraocular lenses. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1589–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Delmarcelle Y, Francois J (1976) Biometrie oculaire clinique (oculometrie). Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol pp 172–181Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dementiev DD, Hoffer KJ, Sborgia G et al (1999) Phakic refractive lenses (PRLs). In: Lovisolo CF, Pesando PM (eds) The implantable contact lens (ICL) and other phakic IOLs. Fabiano, Canelli, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dementiev DD, Hoffer KJ, Sonecka A (2004) PRL-Medennium posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. In: Alio JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs. Fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Edelhauser HF, Sanders DR, Azar R et al (2004) Corneal endothelial assessment after ICL implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:576–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    El-Sheikh HF, Tabbara KF (2003) Cataract following posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. J Refract Surg 19:72–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fontana ST, Brubaker RF (1973) Volume and depth of the anterior chamber in the normal aging human eye. Arch Ophthalmol 98:1803Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fyodorov SN, Zuev VK, Tumanyan ER (1987) Modern approach to the stagewise complex surgical therapy of high myopia. Transactions of International symposium of IOL. Moscow, RSFSP Ministry of Health, pp 27427–27429Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garcia-Feijoo J, Alfaro IJ, Cuina-Sardina R et al (2003) Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens position. Ophthalmology 110:163–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Glasser A, Campbell MC (1998) Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age. Vision Res 38:209–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Halpern BL, Pavilack MA, Gallagher SP (1995) The incidence of atonic pupil following cataract surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 113:448–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hikichi T, Trempe CL, Schepens CL (1995) Posterior vitreous detachment as a risk factor for retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 102:527–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keuch RJ, Bleckmann H (2002) Pupil diameter changes and reaction after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2170–2172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kodjikian L, Gain P, Donate D et al (2002) Malignant glaucoma induced by a phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2217–2221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee DA, Brubaker RF, Ilstrup DM (1984) Anterior chamber dimensions in patients with narrow angles and angle-closure glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 102:46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lovisolo CF (1999) Methods of sizing ICLs should be improved, surgeon says. Ocular Surg News 10:34–35Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lovisolo CF (2003) Posterior chamber phakic IOLs. ISRS/AAO 2003 Refractive Surgery comes of age. Subspecialty Day Syllabus, pp 33–41Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lovisolo CF, Giacomotti E (2004) Implantation of phakic intraocular lenses for hyperopia correction. In: Aliò JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs. Fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lovisolo CF, Pesando PM (2000) The Implantable Contact Lens (ICL™) and other phakic IOLs. Fabiano, Canelli, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lovisolo CF, Pesando PM (2004) Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses. In: Aliò JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs. Fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lovisolo CF, Pesando PM (2004) ICL posterior chamber phakic IOL. In: Aliò JL, Perez-Santonja JJ (eds) Refractive surgery with phakic IOLs. Fundamentals and practice. Highlights of Ophthalmology International, El Dorado, Republic of PanamaGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lovisolo CF, Reinstein DZ (2005) Phakic intraocular lenses. Surv Ophthalmol 50:549–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lowe RF (1970) Aetiology of the anatomical basis for primary angle-closure glaucoma. Biometrical comparisons between normal eyes and eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 54:161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maroccos R, Vaz F, Marinho A et al (2001) Glare and halos after phakic IOL surgery for the correction of high myopia. Ophthalmologe 98:1055–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Menezo JL, Peris-Martínez C, Cisneros AL et al (2004) Phakic intraocular lenses to correct high myopia: Adatomed, Staar, and Artisan. J Catar Refract Surg 30:40–51Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Okabe I, Taniguchi T (1992) Age related changes of the anterior chamber width. J Glaucoma 1:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pérez-Santonja JJ, Hernandez JL, Benitez del Castillo M et al (1994) Fluorophotometry in myopic phakic eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lenses to correct severe myopia. Am J Ophthalmol 118:316–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pérez-Santonja JJ, Iradier MT, Benitez del Castillo JM et al (1996) Chronic subclinical inflammation in phakic eyes with intraocular lenses to correct myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pérez-Santonja JJ, Bueno JL, Zato MA (1997) Surgical correction of high myopia in phakic eyes with Worst-Fechner myopia intraocular lenses. J Refract Surg 13:268–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pesando PM, Ghiringhello MP, Tagliavacche P (1999) Posterior chamber collamer phakic intraocular lens for myopia and hyperopia. J Refract Surg 15:415–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Petternel V, Koppl CM, Dejaco-Ruhswurm et al (2004) Effect of accommodation and pupil size on the movement of a posterior chamber lens in the phakic eye. Ophthalmology 111:325–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pop M, Payette Y (2004) Initial results of endothelial cell counts after Artisan Lens for Phakic Eyes. Ophthalmology 111:309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reinstein DZ, Silverman RH, Raevsky T et al (2000) A new arc-scanning very high-frequency ultrasound system for 3D pachymetric mapping of corneal epithelium, lamellar flap and residual stromal layer in laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 16:414–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rosen E, Gore C (1998) STAAR collamer posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens to correct myopia and hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:596–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sanchez-Galeana CA, Smith RJ, Rodriguez X et al (2001) Laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for residual refractive error after phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Refract Surg 17:299–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sanchez-Galeana CA, Zadok D, Montes M et al (2002) Refractory intraocular pressure increase after phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Am J Ophthalmol 134:121–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sanchez-Galeana CA, Smith RJ, Sanders DR et al (2003) Lens opacities after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology 110:781–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sanders DR (2003) ICL in Treatment of Myopia Study Group. Postoperative inflammation after implantation of the implantable contact lens. Ophthalmology 110:2335–2341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sanders DR (2007) Matched population comparison of the Visian Implantable Collamer Lens and standard LASIK for myopia of−3.00 to −7.88 Diopters. J Refract Surg 23:537–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sanders D, Vukich JA (2006) Comparison of implantable collamer lens (ICL) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for low myopia. Cornea 25:1139–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sanders DR, Vukich JA, Doney K et al (2003) Implantable Contact Lens in Treatment of Myopia Study Group. U.S. Food and Drug Administration clinical trial of the Implantable Contact Lens for moderate to high myopia. Ophthalmology 110:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sanders DR, Doney K, Poco M (2004) ICL in Treatment of Myopia Study Group. US FDA clinical trial of the Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) for moderate to high myopia: three-year follow-up. Ophthalmology 111:1683–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sanders DR, Schneider D, Martin R et al (2007) Toric Implantable Collamer Lens for moderate to high myopic astigmatism. Ophthalmology 114:54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sarver EJ, Sanders DR, Vukich JA (2003) Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic intraocular lens. J Refract Surg 19:397–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schepens CL (1994) Increased intraocular pressure during scleral buckling Ophthalmology 101:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sechler JL, Corbett SA, Wenk MB et al (1998) Modulation of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 857:143–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shaffer RN (1960) Gonioscopy, ophthalmoscopy and perimetry. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otorlaryngol 64:112Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trindade F, Pereira F (2000) Exchange of a posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens in a highly myopic eye. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:773–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Urrets-Zavalia A Jr (1963) Fixed, dilated pupil, iris atrophy and secondary glaucoma; a distinct clinical entity following penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 56:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Uusitalo RJ, Aine E, Sen NH et al (2002) Implantable contact lens for high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Visessook N, Peng Q, Apple DJ et al (1999) Pathological examination of an explanted phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:216–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Werner L, Apple DJ, Pandey SK et al (2001) Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Int Ophthalmol Clin 41:153–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Werner L, Lovisolo CF, Chew J et al (2007) Meridional differences of internal dimensions of the anterior segment of human eyes evaluated with two imaging systems. Ophthalmology (submitted )Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zaldivar R, Davidorf JM, Oscherow SA (1999) Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. In: Lovisolo CF, Pesando PM (eds) The Implantable Contact Lens (ICL™) and other phakic IOLs. Fabiano, Canelli, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zaldivar R, Oscherow S, Piezzi V (2002) Bioptics in phakic and pseudophakic intraocular lens with the Nidek EC-5000 excimer laser. J Refract Surg 18:336–339Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orkun Muftuoglu
    • 1
  • Jorge L. Alió
    • 2
  • Antonio A P. Marinho
    • 3
  • Carlo F. Lovisolo
    • 4
  • Fabio Mazzolani
    • 5
  1. 1.Vissum CorporationAlicanteSpain
  2. 2.Medical School Vissum CorporationMiguel Hernandez UniversityAlicanteSpain
  3. 3.PortoPortugal
  4. 4.San Raff aele University HospitalQuattroelle Eye CentresMilanItaly
  5. 5.Quattroelle Eye CentersMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations