Refractive Surgery Outcomes and Frequency of Complications

  • Wallace Chamon
  • Norma Alleman


  • There is no risk-free surgical procedure.

  • There are enough data in literature to determine the risk for the majority of the refractive surgery procedures.

  • Refractive surgery risks and benefits should be evaluated individually in order to choose the surgical approach properly.

  • Not only incidence, but also morbidity of each possible complication should be considered in this choice.

  • Decision making in refractive procedure is an individualized process that should be based on scientific knowledge, patient’s characteristics, and surgeon experience.


Femtosecond Laser Intraocular Lens High Myopia Refractive Surgery Posterior Chamber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hjortdal JO, Moller-Pedersen T, Ivarsen A, Ehlers N (2005) Corneal power, thickness, and stiffness: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial of PRK and LASIK for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shortt AJ, Allan BD (2006) Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) versus laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD005135Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shortt AJ, Bunce C, Allan BD (2006) Evidence for superior efficacy and safety of LASIK over photorefractive keratectomy for correction of myopia. Ophthalmology 113:1897–1908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang Z, Chen J, Yang B (1997) Comparison of laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy to correct myopia from −1.25 to −6.00 diopters. J Refract Surg 13:528–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hersh PS, Brint SF, Maloney RK, Durrie DS, Gordon M, Michelson MA (1998) Photorefractive keratectomy versus laser in situ keratomileusis for moderate to high myopia. A randomized prospective study. Ophthalmology 105:1512–1522, discussion 1522–1523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Forseto AS, Nosé RA, Nosé W (2000) PRK versus LASIK for correction of low and moderate myopia [in Portuguese]. Arq Bras Oftalmol 63:257–262Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Maghraby A, Salah T, Waring GO III, Klyce S, Ibrahim O (1999) Randomized bilateral comparison of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for 2.50 to 8.00 diopters of myopia. Ophthalmology 106:447–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    el Danasoury MA, el Maghraby A, Klyce SD, Mehrez K (1999) Comparison of photorefractive keratectomy with excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in correcting low myopia (from −2.00 to −5.50 diopters): a randomized study. Ophthalmology 106:411–420; discussion 420–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    US Food and Drug Administration (2006) Lasik eye surgery. Available via Cited 22 March 2007Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roy S, Tritten JJ (2002) [Myopic implant of the posterior chamber using a flexible Collamer lens]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 219:196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liekfeld A, Friederici L, Klotz O (2005) [Monocentric two-year results after phakic posterior chamber lens (PRL) implantation in myopic patients]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 222:888–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leroux-Les-Jardins S, Ullern M, Werthel AL (1999) [Myopic anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation: evaluation at 8 years]. J Fr Ophtalmol 22:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lackner B, Pieh S, Schmidinger G, Hanselmayer G, Dejaco-Ruhswurm I, Funovics MA, (2003) Outcome after treatment of ametropia with implantable contact lenses. Ophthalmology 110:2153–2161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benedetti S, Casamenti V, Marcaccio L, Brogioni C, Assetto V (2005) Correction of myopia of 7 to 24 diopters with the Artisan phakic intraocular lens: two-year follow-up. J Refract Surg 21:116–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garcia M, Gonzalez C, Pascual I, Fimia A (1996) Magnification and visual acuity in highly myopic phakic eyes corrected with an anterior chamber intraocular lens versus by other methods. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:1416–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holladay JT, Prager TC, Chandler TY, Musgrove KH, Lewis JW, Ruiz RS (1988) A three-part system for refining intraocular lens power calculations. J Cataract Refract Surg 14:17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aramberri J (2003) Intraocular lens power calculation after corneal refractive surgery: double-K method. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2063–2068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chamon W (2004) A new approach to correct an inherent error in IOL calculation formulas for eyes submitted to keratorefractive procedures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45 (Abstr):341Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Oliveira GC, Solari HP, Ciola FB, Lima AL, Campos MS (2006) Corneal infiltrates after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy and LASIK. J Refract Surg 22:159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wroblewski KJ, Pasternak JF, Bower KS, Schallhorn SC, Hubickey WJ, Harrison CE (2006) Infectious keratitis after photorefractive keratectomy in the United States army and navy. Ophthalmology 113:520–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moshirfar M, Welling JD, Feiz V, Holz H, Clinch TE (2007) Infectious and noninfectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis Occurrence, management, and visual outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg 33:474–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lifshitz T, Levy J, Mahler O, Levinger S (2005) Peripheral sterile corneal infiltrates after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1392–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gimbel HV, van Westenbrugge JA, Penno EE, Ferensowicz M, Feinerman GA, Chen R (1999) Simultaneous bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis: safety and efficacy. Ophthalmology 106:1461–1467, discussion 1467–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang D, Krueger R, Stulting RD (2000) Correlation between eyes in bilateral LASIK. Ophthalmology 107:1962–1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kattan HM, Flynn HW, Jr., Pflugfelder SC, Robertson C, Forster RK (1991) Nosocomial endophthalmitis survey. Current incidence of infection after intraocular surgery. Ophthalmology 98:227–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marty N, Malavaud S (2002) [Epidemiology of nosocomial infections after cataract surgery and role of the Infection Control Committee in prevention]. Bull Acad Natl Med 186:635–645, discussion 645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Haapala TT, Nelimarkka L, Saari JM, Ahola V, Saari KM (2005) Endophthalmitis following cataract surgery in southwest Finland from 1987 to 2000. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243:1010–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McAlister JC, Ardjomand N, Ilari L, Mengher LS, Gartry DS (2006) Keratitis after intracorneal ring segment insertion for keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:676–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mondino BJ, Rabin BS, Kessler E, Gallo J, Brown SI (1977) Corneal rings with gram-negative bacteria. Arch Ophthalmol 95:2222–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hofling-Lima AL, Branco BC, Romano AC, Campos MQ, Moreira H, Miranda D (2004) Corneal infections after implantation of intracorneal ring segments. Cornea 23:547–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morgan PB, Efron N, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Whiting MA, Tullo AB (2005) Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers. Br J Ophthalmol 89:430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schein OD, McNally JJ, Katz J, Chalmers RL, Tielsch JM, Alfonso E (2005) The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmology 112:2172–2179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chalita MR, Chavala S, Xu M, Krueger RR (2004) Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography. Ophthalmology 111:447–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chalita MR, Krueger RR (2004) Correlation of aberrations with visual acuity and symptoms. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 17:135–42, v–viPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chiam PJ, Chan JH, Aggarwal RK, Kasaby S (2006) ReSTOR intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery: quality of vision. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1459–1463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Casprini F, Balestrazzi A, Tosi GM, Miracco F, Martone G, Cevenini G (2005) Glare disability and spherical aberration with five foldable intraocular lenses: a prospective randomized study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 83:20–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bellucci R, Morselli S, Pucci V (2007) Spherical aberration and coma with an aspherical and a spherical intraocular lens in normal age-matched eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 33:203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tester R, Pace NL, Samore M, Olson RJ (2000) Dysphotopsia in phakic and pseudophakic patients: incidence and relation to intraocular lens type(2). J Cataract Refract Surg 26:810–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Oshika T, Tokunaga T, Samejima T, Miyata K, Kawana K, Kaji Y (2006) Influence of pupil diameter on the relation between ocular higher-order aberration and contrast sensitivity after laser in situ keratomileusis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:1334–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ruiz-Moreno JM, Perez-Santonja JJ, Alio JL (1999) Retinal detachment in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 128:588–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Arevalo JF, Freeman WR, Gomez L (2001) Retina and vitreous pathology after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis: is there a cause-effect relationship? Ophthalmology 108:839–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lin J, Xie X, Du X, Yang Y, Yao K (2002) [Incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 38:546–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Suzuki CR, Farah ME (2004) Retinal peripheral changes after laser in situ keratomileusis in patients with high myopia. Can J Ophthalmol 39:69–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Faghihi H, Jalali KH, Amini A, Hashemi H, Fotouhi A, Esfahani MR (2006) Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after LASIK for myopia. J Refract Surg 22:448–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sheu SJ, Ger LP, Chen JF (2006) Axial myopia is an extremely significant risk factor for young-aged pseudophakic retinal detachment in taiwan. Retina 26:322–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Erie JC, Raecker MA, Baratz KH, Schleck CD, Burke JP, Robertson DM (2006) Risk of retinal detachment after cataract extraction, 1980–2004: a population-based study. Ophthalmology 113:2026–2032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Olsen G, Olson RJ (2000) Update on a long-term, prospective study of capsulotomy and retinal detachment rates after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1017–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Martinez-Castillo V, Boixadera A, Verdugo A, Elies D, Coret A, Garcia-Arumi J (2005) Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in phakic eyes after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation for severe myopia. Ophthalmology 112:580–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Navarro R, Gris O, Broc L, Corcostegui B (2005) Bilateral giant retinal tear following posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Refract Surg 21:298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kuo IC, Lee SM, Hwang DG (2004) Late-onset corneal haze and myopic regression after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Cornea 23:350–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fiore T, Carones F, Brancato R (2001) Broad beam vs. flying spot excimer laser: refractive and videokeratographic outcomes of two different ablation profiles after photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Surg 17:534–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bedei A, Marabotti A, Giannecchini I, Ferretti C, Montagnani M, Martinucci C (2006) Photorefractive keratectomy in high myopic defects with or without intraoperative mitomycin C: 1-year results. Eur J Ophthalmol 16:229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Netto MV, Chalita MR, Krueger RR (2007) Corneal haze following PRK with mitomycin C as a retreatment versus prophylactic use in the contralateral eye. J Refract Surg 23:96–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Netto MV, Mohan RR, Sinha S, Sharma A, Gupta PC, Wilson SE (2006) Effect of prophylactic and therapeutic mitomycin C on corneal apoptosis, cellular proliferation, haze, and long-term keratocyte density in rabbits. J Refract Surg 22:562–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carones F, Vigo L, Scandola E (2006) Wavefront-guided treatment of symptomatic eyes using the LADAR6000 excimer laser. J Refract Surg 22:S983–S989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chalita MR, Roth AS, Krueger RR (2004) Wavefront-guided surface ablation with prophylactic use of mitomycin C after a buttonhole laser in situ keratomileusis flap. J Refract Surg 20:176–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carones F, Vigo L, Scandola E, Vacchini L (2002) Evaluation of the prophylactic use of mitomycin-C to inhibit haze formation after photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2088–2095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Netto MV, Mohan RR, Ambrosio R, Jr., Hutcheon AE, Zieske JD, Wilson SE (2005) Wound healing in the cornea: a review of refractive surgery complications and new prospects for therapy. Cornea 24:509–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Torres RM, Merayo-Lloves J, Daya SM, Blanco-Mezquita JT, Espinosa M, Nozal MJ (2006) Presence of mitomycin-C in the anterior chamber after photorefractive keratectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morales AJ, Zadok D, Mora-Retana R, Martinez-Gama E, Robledo NE, Chayet AS (2006) Intraoperative mitomycin and corneal endothelium after photorefractive keratectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 142:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Malecaze F, Coullet J, Calvas P, Fournie P, Arne JL, Brodaty C (2006) Corneal ectasia after photorefractive keratectomy for low myopia. Ophthalmology 113:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lovisolo CF, Fleming JF (2002) Intracorneal ring segments for iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis or photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Surg 18:535–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Javadi MA, Mohammadpour M, Rabei HM (2006) Keratectasia after LASIK but not after PRK in one patient. J Refract Surg 22:817–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Seiler T, Koufala K, Richter G (1998) Iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 14:312–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miyata K, Takahashi T, Tomidokoro A, Ono K, Oshika T (2001) Iatrogenic keratectasia after phototherapeutic keratectomy. Br J Ophthalmol 85:247–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dean SJ, McGhee CN (2002) Keratectasia after PTK. Br J Ophthalmol 86:486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Leung AT, Rao SK, Cheng AC, Yu EW, Fan DS, Lam DS (2000) Pathogenesis and management of laser in situ keratomileusis flap buttonhole. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:358–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakano K, Nakano E, Oliveira M, Portellinha W, Alvarenga L (2004) Intraoperative microkeratome complications in 47,094 laser in situ keratomileusis surgeries. J Refract Surg 20(Suppl): S723–S726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tham VM, Maloney RK (2000) Microkeratome complications of laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 107:920–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Walker MB, Wilson SE (2000) Lower intraoperative flap complication rate with the Hansatome microkeratome compared to the Automated Corneal Shaper. J Refract Surg 16:79–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yildirim R, Devranoglu K, Ozdamar A, Aras C, Ozkiris A, Ozkan S (2001) Flap complications in our learning curve of laser in situ keratomileusis using the Hansatome microkeratome. Eur J Ophthalmol 11:328–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jacobs JM, Taravella MJ (2002) Incidence of intraoperative flap complications in laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pallikaris IG, Katsanevaki VJ, Panagopoulou SI (2002) Laser in situ keratomileusis intraoperative complications using one type of microkeratome. Ophthalmology 109:57–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sharma N, Ghate D, Agarwal T, Vajpayee RB (2005) Refractive outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis after flap complications. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1334–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Talamo JH, Meltzer J, Gardner J (2006) Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes. J Refract Surg 22:556–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Montes-Mico R, Rodriguez-Galietero A, Alio JL (2007) Femtosecond laser versus mechanical keratome LASIK for myopia. Ophthalmology 114:62–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Binder PS (2006) One thousand consecutive IntraLase laser in situ keratomileusis flaps. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:962–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lim T, Yang S, Kim M, Tchah H (2006) Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 141:833–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Patel SV, Maguire LJ, McLaren JW, Hodge DO, Bourne WM (2007) Femtosecond laser versus mechanical microkeratome for LASIK: a randomized controlled study. Ophthalmology 114:1482–1490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Munoz G, Albarran-Diego C, Sakla HF, Javaloy J, Alio JL (2006) Transient light-sensitivity syndrome after laser in situ keratomileusis with the femtosecond laser Incidence and prevention. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:2075–2079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stonecipher KG, Dishler JG, Ignacio TS, Binder PS (2006) Transient light sensitivity after femtosecond laser flap creation: clinical findings and management. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Recep OF, Cagil N, Hasiripi H (2000) Outcome of flap subluxation after laser in situ keratomileusis: results of 6-month follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1158–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Aldave AJ, Hollander DA, Abbott RL (2002) Late-onset traumatic flap dislocation and diffuse lamellar inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis. Cornea 21:604–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Booth MA, Koch DD (2003) Late laser in situ keratomileusis flap dislocation caused by a thrown football. J Cataract Refract Surg 29:2032–2033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tumbocon JA, Paul R, Slomovic A, Rootman DS (2003) Late traumatic displacement of laser in situ keratomileusis flaps. Cornea 22:66–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kocak I, Karabela Y, Karaman M, Kaya F (2006) Late onset diffuse lamellar keratitis as a result of the toxic effect of Ecballium elaterium herb. J Refract Surg 22:826–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lazaro C, Perea J, Arias A (2006) Surgical-glove-related diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: long-term outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1702–1709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Shen YC, Wang CY, Fong SC, Tsai HY, Lee YF (2006) Diffuse lamellar keratitis induced by toxic chemicals after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 32:1146–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Smith RJ, Maloney RK. Diffuse lamellar keratitis (1998) A new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery. Ophthalmology 105:1721–1726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bigham M, Enns CL, Holland SP, Buxton J, Patrick D, Marion S (2005) Diffuse lamellar keratitis complicating laser in situ keratomileusis: post-marketing surveillance of an emerging disease in British Columbia, Canada, 2000–2002. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:2340–2344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dada T, Pangtey MS, Sharma N, Vajpayee RB, Jhanji V, Sethi HS (2006) Hyeropic shift after LASIK induced diffuse lamellar keratitis. BMC Ophthalmol 6:19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Beer SM, Campos M, Lopes PT, Andre JA, Jr., Schor P (2007) Ocular wavefront aberrations in patients after diffuse lamellar keratitis. Cornea 26:6–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Klein SR, Epstein RJ, Randleman JB, Stulting RD (2006) Corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis in patients without apparent preoperative risk factors. Cornea 25:388–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Randleman JB, Russell B, Ward MA, Thompson KP, Stulting RD (2003) Risk factors and prognosis for corneal ectasia after LASIK. Ophthalmology 110:267–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tabbara KF, Kotb AA (2006) Risk factors for corneal ectasia after LASIK. Ophthalmology 113:1618–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kymionis GD, Siganos CS, Kounis G, Astyrakakis N, Kalyvianaki MI, Pallikaris IG (2003) Management of post-LASIK corneal ectasia with Intacs inserts: one-year results. Arch Ophthalmol 121:322–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wollensak G, Sporl E, Seiler T (2003) [Treatment of keratoconus by collagen cross-linking]. Ophthalmologe 100:44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kohlhaas M, Spoerl E, Speck A, Schilde T, Sandner D, Pillunat LE (2005) [A new treatment of keratectasia after LASIK by using collagen with riboflavin/UVA light cross-linking]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 222:430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Iradier MT, Sanz-Iglesias L, Serrano JM, Zato MA (1996) Endothelial changes in phakic eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lenses to correct high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:1017–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Baikoff G, Arne JL, Bokobza Y, Colin J, George JL, Lagoutte F (1998) Angle-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia of −7 to −19 diopters. J Refract Surg 14:282–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Allemann N, Chamon W, Tanaka HM, Mori ES, Campos M, Schor P (2000) Myopic angle-supported intraocular lenses: twoyear follow-up. Ophthalmology 107:1549–1554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Alio JL, de la Hoz F, Perez-Santonja JJ, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Quesada JA (1999) Phakic anterior chamber lenses for the correction of myopia: a 7-year cumulative analysis of complications in 263 cases. Ophthalmology 106:458–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Menezo JL, Cisneros AL, Rodriguez-Salvador V (1998) Endothelial study of iris-claw phakic lens: four year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1039–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Saxena R, Landesz M, Noordzij B, Luyten GP (2003) Three-year follow-up of the Artisan phakic intraocular lens for hypermetropia. Ophthalmology 110:1391–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jimenez-Alfaro I, Benitez del Castillo JM, Garcia-Feijoo J, Gil de Bernabe JG, Serrano de La Iglesia JM (2001) Safety of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of high myopia: anterior segment changes after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology 108:90–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Budo C, Hessloehl JC, Izak M, Luyten GP, Menezo JL, Sener BA (2000) Multicenter study of the Artisan phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1163–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Leccisotti A (2005) Angle-supported phakic intraocular lenses in hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1598–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ardjomand N, Kolli H, Vidic B, El-Shabrawi Y, Faulborn J (2002) Pupillary block after phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1080–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smallman DS, Probst L, Rafuse PE (2004) Pupillary block glaucoma secondary to posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation for high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:905–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hoyos JE, Dementiev DD, Cigales M, Hoyos-Chacon J, Hoffer KJ (2002) Phakic refractive lens experience in Spain. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:1939–1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bylsma SS, Zalta AH, Foley E, Osher RH (2002) Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens pupillary block. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:2222–2228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Iradier MT, Benitez del Castillo JM, Serrano JM, Zato MA (1996) Chronic subclinical inflammation in phakic eyes with intraocular lenses to correct myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Menezo JL, Avino JA, Cisneros A, Rodriguez-Salvador V, Martinez-Costa R (1997) Iris claw phakic intraocular lens for high myopia. J Refract Surg 13:545–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Perez-Santonja JJ, Alio JL, Jimenez-Alfaro I, Zato MA (2000) Surgical correction of severe myopia with an angle-supported phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1288–1302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Trindade F, Pereira F (1998) Cataract formation after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 24:1661–1663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fink AM, Gore C, Rosen E (1999) Cataract development after implantation of the Staar Collamer posterior chamber phakic lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 25:278–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sanchez-Galeana CA, Smith RJ, Sanders DR, Rodriguez FX, Litwak S, Montes M (2003) Lens opacities after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology 110:781–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Menezo JL, Peris-Martinez C, Cisneros AL, Martinez-Costa R (2004) Phakic intraocular lenses to correct high myopia: Adatomed, Staar, and Artisan. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Alio JL, de la Hoz F, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Salem TF (2000) Cataract surgery in highly myopic eyes corrected by phakic anterior chamber angle-supported lenses. J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1303–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Baikoff G, Bourgeon G, Jodai HJ, Fontaine A, Lellis FV, Trinquet L (2005) Pigment dispersion and Artisan phakic intraocular lenses: crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion. J Cataract Refract Surg 31:674–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Trindade F, Pereira F, Cronemberger S (1998) Ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. J Refract Surg 14:497–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eleftheriadis H, Amoros S, Bilbao R, Teijeiro MA (2004) Spontaneous dislocation of a phakic refractive lens into the vitreous cavity. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:2013–2016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hoyos JE, Cigales M, Hoyos-Chacon J (2005) Zonular dehiscence two years after phakic refractive lens (PRL) implantation. J Refract Surg 21:13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wallace Chamon
    • 1
  • Norma Alleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of São Paulo, Paulista School of MedicineSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations