Sediment is an integral and dynamic part of aquatic systems and it plays a major role in the hydrological, geomorphological and ecological functioning of river basins, defined here to include lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and the coastal zone. In natural and agricultural systems, sediment originates from the weathering of rocks, the mobilization and erosion of soils and river banks, and mass movements such as landslides and debris flows. In most river basins there are also important contributions to the sediment load of organic-rich material from a range of sources such as riparian trees, macrophytes and fish. This inorganic and organic material is susceptible to transportation downstream by flowing water, from headwaters and other source areas towards the outlet of the river basin. Flow rates decline in lowland areas (and areas where flow is reduced) where transported material settles in slack-zones and on the bed of the river, and on river floodplains during overbank events. At the end of the river much of the sediment is deposited in the estuary and on the seabed of the coastal zone.


River Basin Sediment Transport Sediment Load Dissolve Organic Matter Sediment Flux 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon (1999) Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of wasteGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (2002a) SedNet Demand driven, European Sediment Research Network, Description of Work (DoW), Final Version. EC Proposal no. EVK-2001-00058. 31 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon (2002b) DEPOTEC, Amersfoort.and Strom& Hafenbau, Hamburg, Sub-aquatic Depots of Dredged Material in the Netherlands (in German), Report, January 2002. HamburgGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (2004) Expert Group of Analysis and Monitoring of Priority Substances (AMPS). Discussion Document, 13 January 2004, 8 p, IspraGoogle Scholar
  5. Apitz S, White S (2003) A conceptual framework for river-basin-scale sediment management. J Soils Sediments 3:132–138Google Scholar
  6. Assleman NEM, Middelkoop H, van Dijk PM (2003) The impact of changes in climate and land use on soil erosion, transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the river Rhine. Hydrol Processes 17:3225–3244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babut M, Oen A, Hollert H, Apitz SE, Heise S, White S (2007) Prioritization at river basin scale, risk assessment at local scale: suggested approaches. In: Heise S (ed) Sustainable Management of Sediment Resources: Sediment Risk Management and Communication. Elsevier Amsterdampp, 107–151Google Scholar
  8. Batalla RJ (2003) Sediment deficit in rivers caused by dams and instream gravel mining. A review with examples from NE Spain. Cuaternario y Geomorfología 17:79–91Google Scholar
  9. Batalla RJ, Vericat D, Palau A (2006) Sediment transport during a flushing flow in the lower Ebro River. In: Rowan JS, Duck RW and Werrity A (eds) Sediment Dynamics and the Hydromorphology of Fluvial Systems, IAHS Publication 306, IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, pp 37–44Google Scholar
  10. Carter J, Owens PN, Walling DE, Leeks GJL (2003) Fingerprinting suspended sediment sources in a large urban river system. Sci Total Environ 314–316:513–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Förstner U (2002) Sediments and the European Water Framework Directive. J Soils Sediment 2:54Google Scholar
  12. Förstner U (2003) Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments–river basin view. Environ Sci Pollut Res 10(1):58–68Google Scholar
  13. Förstner U (2004a) Sediments–resource or waste? J Soils Sediments 4(sn1):3Google Scholar
  14. Förstner U (2004b) Traceability of sediment analysis. Trends Anal Chem 23(3):217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerrits L, Edelenbos J (2004). Management of sediments through stakeholder involvement. J Soils Sediments 4:239–246Google Scholar
  16. Götz R, Steiner B, Friesel P, Roch K, Walkow F, Maaß V, Reincke H, Stachel B (1998) Dioxin (PCDD/F) in the river Elbe–investigations of their origin by multivariate statistical methods. Chemosphere 37:1987–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamer K, Hakstege P, Arevalo E (2005) Treatment and disposal of contaminated dredged sediments. In: Lens P, Grotenhuis T, Malina G, Tabak H (eds), Soil and Sediment Remediation, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp 345–369Google Scholar
  18. Heise S (2003) Sediment working group on risk management: The current discussion status. J Soils Sediments 3(3):129–131Google Scholar
  19. Heise S, Förstner U, Westrich B, Jancke T, Karnahl J, Salomons W (2004) Inventory of Historical Contaminated Sediment in Rhine Basin and its Tributaries. On behalf of the Port of Rotterdam. October 2004, Hamburg, 225 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Hudson-Edwards KA, Macklin MG, Jamieson HE, Brewer PA, Coulthard TJ, Howard AJ, Turner JN (2003) The impact of tailings dam spills and clean-up operations on sediment and water quality in river systems: the Ríos Agrio-Guadiamar, Aznacóllar, Spain. Appl Geochem 18:221–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones CA, Basch G, Bayliss AD, Bazzoni D, Biggs J, Bradbury RB, Chaney K, Deeks LK, Field R, Gomez JA, Jones RJA, Jordan VWL, Lane MCG, Leake A, Livermore M, Owens PN, Ritz K, Stury WG, Thomas F (2006) Conservation Agriculture in Europe: An Approach to Sustainable Crop Production by Protecting Soil and Water? SOWAP, Jealott’s Hill, Bracknell, UKGoogle Scholar
  22. Kondolf GM (1997) Hungry water: effects of dams and river mining on river channels. Environ Manage 21:533–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Köthe H (2003) Existing sediment management guidelines: an overview. J Soils Sediments 3:139–143Google Scholar
  24. Leopold LB (1997) Waters, Rivers and Creeks. University Science Books, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Macklin MG, Brewer PA, Balteanu D, Coulthard T, Driga B, Howard AJ, Zahari S (2003) The long term fate and environmental significance of contaminant metal released by the January and March 2000 mining tailings dam failures in Maramure County, upper Tia Basin, Romania. Appl Geochem 18:241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Magilligan FJ, Salant NL, Renshaw CE, Nislow KE, Heimsath R, Kaste JM (2006) Evaluating the impacts of impoundments on sediment transport using short-lived fallout radionuclides. In: Rowan JS, Duck RW, Werrity, A (eds) Sediment Dynamics and the Hydromorphology of Fluvial Systems, IAHS Publication 306, IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, pp 159–165Google Scholar
  27. Netzband A, Reincke H, Bergemann M (2002) The river Elbe A case study for the ecological and economical chain of sediments. J Soils Sediments 2:112–116Google Scholar
  28. Owens PN (2005a) Conceptual models and budgets for sediment management at the river basin scale. J Soils Sediments 5:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Owens PN (2005b) Soil erosion and sediment fluxes in river basins: the influence of anthropogenic activities and climate change. In: Lens P, Grotenhuis T, Malina G, Tabak H (eds) Soil and Sediment Remediation, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp 418–433Google Scholar
  30. Owens PN, Collins AJ (2006) Soil erosion and sediment redistribution in river catchments: summary, outlook and future requirements. In: Owens PN, Collins AJ (eds) Soil Erosion and Sediment Redistribution in River Catchments: Measurement, Modelling and Management, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 297–317Google Scholar
  31. Owens PN, Apitz S, Batalla R, Collins A, Eisma M, Glindemann H, Hoonstra S, Kothe H, Quinton J, Taylor K, Westrich B, White S, Wilkinson H (2004) Sediment management at the river basin scale: synthesis of SedNet Working Group 2 outcomes. J Soils Sediments 4:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Owens PN, Batalla RJ, Collins AJ, Gomez B, Hicks DM, Horowitz AJ, Kondolf GM, Marden M, Page MJ, Peacock DH, Petticrew EL, Salomons W, Trustrum NA (2005) Fine-grained sediment in river systems: environmental significance and management issues. River Res Appl 21:693–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Owens PN, Duzant JH, Deeks LK, Wood GA, Morgan RPC, Collins AJ (2006) The use of buffer features for sediment and phosphorus retention in the landscape: implications for sediment delivery and water quality. In: Rowan JS, Duck RW, Werrity A (eds) Sediment Dynamics and the Hydromorphology of Fluvial Systems, IAHS Publication 306, IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, pp 223–230Google Scholar
  34. Salomons W, Brils J (eds) (2004) Contaminated Sediments in European River Basins. SedNet DocumentGoogle Scholar
  35. Slaymaker O (2001) Why so much concern about climate change and so little attention to land use change? The Canadian Geogr 45:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Slaymaker O, Owens PN (2004) Mountain geomorphology and global environmental change. In: Owens PN, Slaymaker O (eds) Mountain Geomorphology. Arnold, London, pp 277–300Google Scholar
  37. Thonon I, Middlekoop H, Van der Perk M (2006) The impact of changes in climate, upstream land use and flood plan topography on overbank deposition. In: Rowan JS, Duck RW, Werrity A (eds) Sediment Dynamics and the Hydromorphology of Fluvial Systems, IAHS Publication 306, IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, pp 480–486Google Scholar
  38. Vericat D, Batalla RJ (2006) Sediment transport in a large impounded river: the lower Ebro, NE Iberian Peninsula. Geomorphology 79:72–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Westrich B, Förstner U (2005) Assessing catchment-wide emission-immission relationships from sediment studies. J Soils Sediments 5(4): 197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williams GP, Wolman MG (1984) Downstream Effects of Dams on Alluvial Rivers. USGS Report, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar


  1. Akkiparambath A (1999) Investigations on Metal Mobilization from Sediments under Conditions Close to Nature (in German). Diploma Thesis Technical School Hamburg. 194 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan RJ (1986) The Role of Particulate Matter in the Fate of Contaminants in Aquatic Ecosystems. National Water Research Institute, Scientific Series no. 142, 128 p. Burlington: Canada Centre for Inland WatersGoogle Scholar
  3. Amiri F, Börnick H, Worch E (2005) Sorption of phenols onto sandy aquifer material: the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Water Res 39:933–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amos CC, Daborn GR, Christian HA, Atkinson A, Robertson A (1992) In-situ erosion measurements of fine-grained sediments from the Bay of Fundy. Mar Geol 108:175–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baalousha M,Vd Kammer F, Motelica-Heino M, Baborowski M, Hofmeister C, Le Coustumer P (2006) Size-based speciation of natural colloidal particles by flow field flow fractionation, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy: Colloids-trace element interaction. Environ Sci Technol 40:2156–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babiarz CL, Hurley JP, Hoffman SR, Andren AW, Shafer MM, Armstrong DE (2001) Partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury to the colloidal phase in freshwaters. Environ Sci Technol 35:4773–4782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boivin M, Simonin O, Squires KD (1998) Direct numerical simulation of turbulence modulation by particles in isotropic turbulence. J Fluid Mech 375:235–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booij K, Sundby B, Helder W (1994) Measuring flux of oxygen to a muddy sediment with a cylindrical microcosm. Neth J Sea Res 32:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunk BK, Jirka GH, Lion LW (1997) Effects of salinity changes and the formation of dissolved organic matter coatings on the sorption of phenanthrene: Implications for pollutant trapping in estuaries. Environ Sci Technol 31:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunk BK, Weber-Shirk M, Jensen-Lavan A, Jirka GH, Lion LW (1996) Modeling natural hydrodynamic systems with a differential-turbulence column. J Hydraulic Engin July 1996:373–380Google Scholar
  11. Buffle J, Leppard GG (1995) Characterization of aquatic colloids and macromolecules. 1. Structure and behaviour of colloidal material. Environ Sci Technol 29:2169–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buffle J, Van Leeuwen HP (1992) Foreword. In: Buffle J, Van Leeuwen HP (eds) Environmental Particles. Lewis Publ. Chelsea MichGoogle Scholar
  13. Characklis WG (1990) Biofilm processes. In: Characklis WG, Marshall KC (eds) Biofilms. John Wiley, New York, pp 195–232Google Scholar
  14. Canfield DE, Jørgensen BB, Fossing H, Glud R, Gundersen J, Ramsing NB, Thamdrup B, Hansen JW, Nielsen LP, Hall POJ (1993) Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments. Mar Geol 113:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Beer D, Glud A, Epping E, Kühl M (1997) A fast responding CO2 microelectrode for profiling sediments, microbial mats and biofilms. Limnol Oceanog 43:1590–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Droppo IG, Leppard GG, Flannigan DT, Liss SN (1997) The freshwater floc: A functional relationship of water and organic and inorganic floc constituents affecting suspended sediment properties. Water Air Soil Pollut 99:43–54Google Scholar
  17. Elsgaard L, Jørgensen BB (1992) Anoxic transformations of radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide in marine and freshwater sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:2425–2435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fengler G, Förstner U, Gust G (1999) Verification experiments on delayed metal release from sediments using a hydrodynamically controlled erosion apparatus (in German). Abstract Annual Meeting German Society of Water Chemistry, Regensburg, pp 240–243Google Scholar
  19. Flemming H-C, Leis A (2002) Sorption properties of biofilms. In: Flemming H-C (ed) Biofilms. In: Bitton G (ed) Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology vol. 5:2958–2967Google Scholar
  20. Flemming H-C, Schmitt J, Marshall KC (1995) Sorption properties of biofilms. In: Calmano W, Förstner U (eds) Sediments and Toxic Substances. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 115–157Google Scholar
  21. Förstner U (1984) Effects of salinity on the metal sorption onto organic particulate matter. In: Laane DN, Wolff WJ (eds) The Role of Organic Matter in the Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 10/84:195–209Google Scholar
  22. Förstner U (1995) Non-linear release of metals from aquatic sediments. In: Salomons W, Stigliani WM (eds) Biogeodynamics of pollutants in soils and sediments–risk assessment of delayed and nonlinear responses. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 247–307Google Scholar
  23. Förstner U (1996) Solutes/solids interaction of metals in estuaries (keynote lecture). In: Kausch H, Michaelis W (eds) Particulate Matter in River and Estuaries. Arch Hydrobiol Spec Issues Advanc Limnol 47:271–287Google Scholar
  24. Förstner U, Gust G (1996) Development and Verification of a Model for Heavy Metal Transfer from Close-to-Nature Mobilized Aquatic Sediments (in German). Proposal to the German Research Foundation (DFG), Project FO 95/26-1 (Feb 1, 1997 until Jan 31,1999)Google Scholar
  25. Glud RN, Santegoeds CM, Beer DD, Kohls O, Ramsing NB (1998) Oxygen dynamics at the base of a biofilm studied with planar optodes. Aquat Microbiol Ecol 114:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greef O, Glud RN, Gundersen JK, Holby O, Jørgensen, BB (1998) A benthic lander for tracer studies in the sea bed: in situ measurements of sulfate reduction. Contin Shelf Res 18:1581–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gust G (1976) Observations on turbulent drag reduction in a dilute suspension of clay in sea water. J Fluid Mech 75:29–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gust G (1991) Fluid velocity measurement instrument. U.S. Patent no. 4,986,122Google Scholar
  29. Gust G, Müller V (1997) Interfacial hydrodynamics and entrainment functions of currently used erosion devices. In: Burt N, Parker R, Watts J (eds) Cohesive Sediments. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 149–174Google Scholar
  30. Hennies K (1997) Biogeochemical Process Studies on the Transport Behavior of Trace Elements in the Tidal Elbe River (in German) Dissertation Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg-Harburg, 288 pGoogle Scholar
  31. Hesse CH, Tory EM (1996) The stochastics of sedimentation. Adv Fluid Mech 7:199–240Google Scholar
  32. Hong J (1995) Characteristics and Mobilization of Heavy Metals in Anoxic Sediments of the Elbe River during Resuspension/Oxidation. Doctoral Thesis at Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg-Harburg, 157 pGoogle Scholar
  33. Humann K (1995) The Influence of Microphytobenthos on Sediment Stability and Formation of Suspended Particulate Matter from Sediments of the Elbe River Estuary (in German). Doctoral Thesis, University of HamburgGoogle Scholar
  34. Huettel M, Ziebis W, Forster S, Luther GW (1998) Advective transport affecting metal and nutrient distribution and interfacial fluxes in permeable sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:613–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson AA, Tezduyar TE (1997) 3D simulation of fluid-particle interactions with the number of particles reaching 100. Comput. Meth Appl Mech Eng145:301–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jørgensen BB (1994) Diffusion processes and boundary layer processes in microbial mats. In: Stal LJ, Caumette P (eds) Microbial Mats–Structure, Development and Environmental Significance. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 243–253Google Scholar
  37. Kausch H, Michaelis W (eds, 1996) Suspended Particulate Matter in Rivers and Estuaries. Advances in Limnology 47. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart, 573 pGoogle Scholar
  38. Kern U (1997) Transport of Suspended Matter and Pollutants in Lock-regulated River–Example of Neckar River (in German). Dissertation University of StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  39. Kies L (1995) Algal snow and the contribution of algae to suspended particulate matter in the Elbe Estuary. In: Wiessner W, Schnepf E, Starr R (eds) Algae, Environment and Human Affairs. Biopress, Bristol, pp 93–121Google Scholar
  40. Kühl M, Lassen C, Revsbech NP (1997) A simple light meter for measurements of PAR (400 to 700 nm) with fiberoptic microprobes: application for P vs E0 (PAR) measurements in a microbial mat. Aquat Microbial Ecol 13:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kühl M, Steuckart C, Eickert G, Jeroschewski P (1999) A H2S microsensor for profiling biofilms and sediments: Application in an acidic lake sediment. Aquatic Microbial Ecol 15:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Landenberger H (1998) CoTReM–A Multicomponent Transport-and Reaction Model (in German). Department of Geosciences, Section of Geochemistry and Hydrogeology, University of Bremen, 142 pGoogle Scholar
  43. Lead JR, Wilkinson KJ (2006) Aquatic colloids and nanoparticles: Current knowledge and future trends. Environ Chem 2006(3):159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lead JR, Muirhead D, Gibson CT (2005) Characterization of freshwater natural aquatic colloids by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Environ Sci Technol 39:6930–6936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Le Normant C, Peltier E, Teisson C (1998) Three dimensional modelling of cohesive sediment transport in estuaries. In: Dronkers J, Scheffers MBAM (eds) Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas. AA Baklema Publ, Rotterdam, pp 65–72Google Scholar
  46. Lick W, Lick J, Ziegler CK (1992) Flocculation and its effect on the vertical transport of fine-grained sediments. In: Hart BT, Sly PG (eds) Sediment/Water Interactions V. Kluwer Academic Publ, Dordrecht, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  47. Ling W, Chung JN, Troutt TR, Crowe CT (1998) Direct numerical simulation of a three-dimensional temporal mixing layer with particle dispersion. J Fluid Mech 358:61–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lyven B, Hassellov M, Turner DR, Haraldsson C, Andersson K (2003) Competition between iron-and carbon-based colloidal carriers for trace metals in a freshwater assessed using flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICPMS. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:3791–3802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malcherek A (1995) Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Flow and Transport Processes in Estuaries (in German). Doctoral Thesis at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Electronic Computation in Civil Engineering. University of Hannover, Report no. 44Google Scholar
  50. Malcherek A (2001) Hydromechanik der Fließgewässer (in German). Habilitation at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Electronic Computation in Civil Engineering. University of Hannover, Report no. 61Google Scholar
  51. Mohacsi A, Bozoki Z, Niessner R (2001) Direct diffusion sampling-based photoacoustic cell for in situ and on-line monitoring of benzene and toluene concentrations in water. Sensors and Actuators B79(2–3):127–131Google Scholar
  52. Morrison MA, Benoit G (2004) Investigation of conventional membrane and tangential flow ultrafiltration artifacts and their application to the characterization of freshwater colloids. Environ Sci Technol 38:6817–6823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neudörfer F, Meyer-Reil L-A (1997) A microbial biosensor for the microscale measurement of bioavailable organic carbon in oxic sediments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 147:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neumann-Hensel H, Ahlf W (1995) Fate and effect of copper and cadmium in a sediment-water system and effect on chitin degrading bacteria. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 23:72–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Owens PhN, Petticrew EL (2006) Sediment dynamics and pollutant mobility in river basins–Sedymo 2006 Symposium, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany, 26–29 March 2006. J Soils and Sediments 6(2): 122–124Google Scholar
  56. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)–a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport and inverse geochemical calculations. Wat Resour Invest US Geol Surv Report 99–4259Google Scholar
  57. Peiffer S (1997) Environmental Geochemical Significance of Formation and Oxidation of Pyrite in Aquatic Sediments (in German). Bayreuth Forum Ecology vol. 47, University of Bayreuth, 105 pGoogle Scholar
  58. Perkins RG, Sun H, Watson J, Player MA, Gust G, Paterson DM (2004) In-line laser holography and video analysis of eroded floc from engineered and estuarine sediments. Environ Sci Technol 38:4640–4648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Petersen W, Hong J, Willamowski C, Wallmann K (1996): Release of trace contaminants during reoxidation of anoxic sediment slurries in oxic water. In: Kausch H, Michaelis W (eds) Particulate Matter in River and Estuaries. Arch Hydrobiol Spec Issues Advanc Limnol 47:295–305Google Scholar
  60. Petersen W, Wallmann K, Li P, Schroeder F, Knauth H-D (1995) Exchange of trace elements at the sediment-water interface during early diagenesis processes. Mar Freshwater Res 46:19–26Google Scholar
  61. Porter ET, Sanford LP, Gust G, Porter FS (2004) Combined water-column mixing and benthic boundary-layer flow in mesocosms: key for realistic benthic-pelagic coupling studies. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 217:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prause B, Rehm E, Schulz-Baldes M(1985) The remobilisation of Pb and Cd from contaminated dredged soil after dumping in the marine environment. Environ Technol Lett 6:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Prestel H, Gahr A, Niessner R (2000) Detection of heavy metals in water by fluorescence spectroscopy: On the way to a suitable sensor system. Fresenius J Anal Chem 368(2–3):182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rebhun M, De Smedt F, Rwetabula J (1996) Dissolved humic substances for remediation of sites contaminated by organic pollutants. Binding-desorption model predictions. Water Res 30:2027–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rolinski S (1997) On the Dynamics of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Tidal Elbe River–Numerical Simulation Using a Lagrangean Procedure (in German). Doctoral Thesis, University of Hamburg, Reports of the Center of Marine and Climate Research no. 25, 117 pGoogle Scholar
  66. Rostad CE, Leenheer JA (1997) Organic carbon and nitrogen content associated with colloids and suspended particulates from the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries. Environ Sci Technol 31:3218–3225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salomons W, de Rooij NM, Kerdijk H, Bril J (1987) Sediments as a source for contaminants. In: Thomas RL, Evans R, Hamilton A, Munawar M, Reynoldson T, Sadar H (eds) Ecological Effects of In Situ Sediment Contaminant. Hydrobiologia 149:13–30Google Scholar
  68. Schroeder F, Klages D, Blöcker G, Vajen-Finnern H, Knauth H-D (1992) The application of a laboratory apparatus for the study of nutrient fluxes between sediment and water. Hydrobiol 235/236:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seibt-Winckler A, Schirmer F (1996) Measurements with a three frequency echo sounder for the detection of suspended matter in a river estuary. In: Kausch H, Michaelis W (eds) Particulate Matter in River and Estuaries. Arch Hydrobiol Spec Issues Advanc Limnol 47:497–506Google Scholar
  70. Spork V (1997) Erosion Behavior of Fine-Grained Sediments and Their Biogenic Stabilisation (in German). Communications of the Institute for Hydraulics and Water Management, RWTH Aachen, vol. 114Google Scholar
  71. Stigliani WM (1988) Changes in the values ‘capacities’ of soils and sediments as indicators of nonlinear and time-delayed environmental effects. Environ Monit Assessm 10:245–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stigliani WM (1991) Chemical Time Bombs: Definition, Concepts, and Examples. Executive Report 16 (CTB Basic Document). IIASA LaxenburgGoogle Scholar
  73. Stolpe B, Hassellöv M, Andersson K, Turner DR (2005) High resolution ICPMS as an on-line detector for Flow Field-Flow Fractionation; multi-element determination of colloidal size distributions in a natural water sample. Analytica Chimica Acta 535:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tolhurst TJ, Gust G, Paterson DM (2002) The influence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on cohesive sediment stability. In: Winterwerp JC, Kranenburg C (eds) Fine Sediment Dynamics in the Marine Environment. Proceedings in Marine Science 5:409–425Google Scholar
  75. Van Breemen N (1983) Acidification and alkalinization of soils. Plant and Soil 75:283–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vignati DAL, Dworak T, Ferrari B, Koukal B, Loizeau J-L, Minouflet M, Camusso MI, Polesello S, Dominik J (2005) Assessment of the gochemical role of colloids and their impact on contaminant toxicity in freshwaters: An example from the Lambro-Po system (Italy). Environ Sci Technol 39:489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wen LS, Santschi PH, Paternostro C, Gill G (1999) Estuarine trace metal distributions in Galveston Bay I: Importance of colloidal forms in the speciation of the dissolved phase. Mar Chem 63:185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Westall JC, Zachary JL, Morel FMM (1976) MINEQL: A compact program for the calculation of chemical equilibrium composition of aqueous systems. R.M. Parsons Lab Techn Note no. 18. MIT, Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  79. Westrich B, Kern U(1996) Mobility of Contaminants in the Sediments of Lock-Regulated Rivers–Field Experiments in the Lock Reservoir Lauffen, Modeling and Estimation of the Remobilisation Risk of Older Sediment Deposits (in German). Final Report no. 96/23, Institute for Hydraulics, University of Stuttgart, 186 pGoogle Scholar
  80. Wiltshire K, Tolhurst T, Paterson DM, Davidson I, Gust G (1998) Pigment fingerprints as markers of erosion and changes in cohesive sediment surface properties in simulated and natural erosion events. In: Black KS, Paterson DM, Cramp A (eds) Sedimentary Processes in the Intertidal Zone. Geological Society London, Spec Publ 139:99–114Google Scholar
  81. Wilkinson KJ, Balnois E, Leppard GG, Buffle J (1999) Characteristic features of major components of freshwater organic matter revealed by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Colloids Surf A 1999, 155:287–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wollschläger A (1996) A Random-Walk-Model for Heavy Metal Particles in Natural Waters (in German). Doctoral Thesis at the Institute for Flow Mechanics and Electronic Computation in Civil Engineering, University of Hannover, Report no. 49Google Scholar
  83. Zhang J, Prestel H, Gahr A, Niessner R (2000) Development of a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for the measurement of heavy metals using a fiber optic chemical sensor based on laser-induced fluorescence. Proc Inter Soc Optical Engineering, 4077 Sensors and Control Techniques, pp 32–39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Förstner
    • 1
  • Philip N. Owens
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy EconomicsHamburg University of TechnologyHamburgGermany
  2. 2.FRBC Endowed Research, Endowed Chair of Landscape Ecology, Environmental Sciences ProgramUniversity of Northern British ColumbiaPrince GeorgeCanada

Personalised recommendations