Performance Analysis of CDMA-Based Watermarking with Quantization Scheme

  • Yanmei Fang
  • Limin Gu
  • Jiwu Huang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3439)


In most existing spread spectrum watermarking algorithms, the embedding parameters, such as the embedding strength and spreading code length, are frequently determined via experiments. In this paper, the theoretical formulas that associate the embedding strength with the user number, or with the spreading code length, are estimated and tested, by analyzing the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) spreading strategies in quantization-based data hiding scenario. Moreover, a performance analytical schema in terms of BER (bit error rate) and SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) is proposed and tested both theoretically and experimentally. The interesting conclusions show that the performance of the CDMA-based data-hiding systems, focusing on quantization scheme, is independent of the user number under the constraints of imperceptibility, and an increase of the spreading code length will lead to a decrease of the robust performance. The simulation results are presented to support the conclusions. Although the work presented in this paper focuses on image watermarking, it may be extended to audio/video watermarking.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanmei Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Limin Gu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jiwu Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Information Science and TechnologySun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouP.R. China
  2. 2.The Guangdong Key Laboratory of Information Security Technology 
  3. 3.Beijing Research and Development CenterChina Construction BankBeijing

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