Advertisement

Identity-Based Zero-Knowledge

  • Jonathan Katz
  • Rafail Ostrovsky
  • Michael O. Rabin
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3352)

Abstract

We introduce and define the notion of identity-based zero-knowledge, concentrating on the non-interactive setting. In this setting, our notion allows any prover to widely disseminate a proof of a statement while protecting the prover from plagiarism in the following sense: although proofs are transferable (i.e., publicly verifiable), they are also bound to the identity of the prover in a way which is recognizable to any verifier. Furthermore, an adversary is unable to change this identity (i.e., to claim the proof as his own, or to otherwise change the authorship), unless he could have proved the statement on his own.

While we view the primary contribution of this work as a formal definition of the above notion, we also explore the relation of this notion to that of non-malleable (non-interactive) zero-knowledge. On the one hand, we show that these two notions are incomparable: that is, there are proof systems which are non-malleable but not identity-based, and vice versa. On the other hand, we show that a proof system of either type essentially implies a proof system of the other type.

Keywords

Proof System Common Reference String Interactive Proof System Trapdoor Permutation Universally Composable Framework 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barak, B.: Constant-Round Coin-Tossing with a Man in the Middle or Realizing the Shared Random String Model. In: FOCS (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blum, M.: How to Prove a Theorem so No One Else Can Claim It. In: Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians (1986)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blum, M., Feldman, P., Micali, S.: Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge and Its Applications. In: STOC (1988)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canetti, R.: Universally Composable Security: A New Paradigm for Cryptographic Protocols. In: FOCS (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cramer, R., Damgård, I.: Fast and Secure Immunization Against Adaptive Man-in-the-Middle Impersonation. In: Fumy, W. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1233, pp. 75–87. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Santis, A., Di Crescenzo, G., Ostrovsky, R., Persiano, G., Sahai, A.: Robust Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, p. 566. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dolev, D., Dwork, C., Naor, M.: Non-Malleable Cryptography. SIAM J. Computing 30(2), 391–437 (2000)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feige, U., Lapidot, D., Shamir, A.: Multiple Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge Proofs Under General Assumptions. SIAM J. Comp. 29(1), 1–28 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., Rackoff, C.: The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems. SIAM J. Comp. 18(1), 186–208 (1989)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jakobsson, M., Sako, K., Impagliazzo, R.: Designated-Verifier Proofs and their Applications. In: Maurer, U.M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1070, pp. 143–154. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katz, J., Ostrovsky, R., Smith, A.: Round Efficiency of Multi-Party Computation with a Dishonest Majority. In: Biham, E. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2656, Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naor, M.: Bit Commitment Using Pseudorandomness. J. Crypto. 4(2), 151–158 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ostrovsky, R., Wigderson, A.: One-Way Functions are Essential for Non-Trivial Zero-Knowledge. In: 2nd Israeli Symp. on Theory of Computing and Systems (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pass, R.: On Deniability in the Common Reference String and Random Oracle Models. In: Boneh, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2003. LNCS, vol. 2729, pp. 316–337. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pass, R.: Bounded-Concurrent Multi-Party Computation with a Dishonest Majority. In: STOC (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sahai, A.: Non-Malleable Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge and Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Security. In: FOCS (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Katz
    • 1
  • Rafail Ostrovsky
    • 2
  • Michael O. Rabin
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceUniversity of Maryland 
  2. 2.Dept. of Computer ScienceUCLA 
  3. 3.Dept. of Computer ScienceHarvard University 

Personalised recommendations