Tumor Markers

  • Robert Carachi
  • Basith Amjad


Tumor markers are biological markers, usually proteins associated with a malignancy. They can be detected within a tumor, in circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood, in lymph nodes, bone marrow and in other body fluids including ascites, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and stool [1]. A tumor marker may be produced by a tumor itself as a by-product of malignant transformation or by the body in response to the tumor. A tumor marker may be used to identify a particular disease, in which case it may be used for diagnosis, staging, or population screening. Markers may also be used to detect the presence of occult metastatic disease, to monitor the response to treatment, or to detect recurrent disease [2]. Recently, they have also been used as targets for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials [3].


Hyaluronic Acid Tumor Marker Germ Cell Tumor Carbohydrate Antigen Immature Teratoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Carachi
    • 1
  • Basith Amjad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgical PaediatricsRoyal Hospital for Sick ChildrenYorkhill GlasgowScotland UK

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