Advertisement

Epidemiology of Childhood Tumors

  • Charles A. Stiller

Abstract

Traditionally, descriptive data on cancers occurring in people of all ages combined have been presented with the diagnoses categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), in which cancers other than leukemias, lymphomas, Kaposi’s sarcoma, cutaneous melanoma, and mesothelioma are classified purely on the basis of primary site. The malignant solid tumors of children are histologically very diverse and a substantial proportion consists of characteristic entities that are rarely seen in adults. Therefore, it is appropriate to group childhood cancers in a way which more fully takes morphology into account, and standard classifications have been devised with the categories defined according to the codes for topography and morphology in the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) [4, 25, 59]. The current scheme is the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3), based on the third edition of ICD-O [59].

Keywords

Germ Cell Tumor Childhood Cancer Burkitt Lymphoma Mesoblastic Nephroma Pleuropulmonary Blastoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M, et al. (2000) A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 83:692–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barrantes JC, Muir KR, Toyn CE, et al. (1993) Thirty-year population-based review of childhood renal tumours with an assessment of prognostic features including tumour DNA characteristics. Med Pediatr Oncol 21:24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birch JM, United Kingdom—Manchester children’s tumour registry 1954–1970 and 1971–1983. In: Parkin DM, et al., eds. (1988) International Incidence of Childhood Cancer. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birch JM, Marsden HB (1987) A classification scheme for childhood cancer. Int J Cancer 40:620–624Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boice JD, Tawn EJ, Winther JE, et al. (2003) Genetic effects of radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Health Phys 85:65–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buffler PA, Kwan ML, Reynolds P, et al. (2005) Environmental and genetic risk factors for childhood leukemia: Appraising the evidence. Cancer Invest 23:60–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cardis E, Krewski D, Boniol M, et al. (2006) Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Int J Cancer 119:1224–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dietrich M, Block G, Pogoda JM, et al. (2005) A review: Dietary and endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds and risk of childhood brain tumors. Cancer Causes Control 16:619–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evrard A-S, Hémon D, Billon S, et al. (2006) Childhood leukemia incidence and exposure to indoor radon, terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation. Health Phys 90:569–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fear NT, Roman E, Ansell P, et al. (2003) Vitamin K and childhood cancer: A report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study. Br J Cancer 89:1228–1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. (2004) GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide, IARC Cancerbase No. 5, version 2.0. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    German Childhood Cancer Registry (2004) Jahresbericht Annual Report 2004 (1980–2003), German Childhood Cancer Registry, MainzGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Greaves M (2006) Infection, immune responses and the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Nat Rev Cancer 6:193–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hartley AL, Birch JM, Marsden HB, et al. (1987) Adrenal cortical tumours: Epidemiological and familial aspects. Arch Dis Child 62:683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hasle H (2001) Pattern of malignant disorders in individuals with Down’s syndrome. Lancet Oncol 2:429–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hjalmars U, Kulldorff M, Wahlquist Y, et al. (1999) Increased incidence rates but no space-time clustering of childhood astrocytoma in Sweden, 1973–1992. Cancer 85:2077–2090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Honjo S, Doran HE, Stiller CA, et al. (2003) Neuroblastoma trends in Osaka, Japan, and Great Britain 1970–1994, in relation to screening. Int J Cancer 103:538–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hrusák O, Trka J, Zuna J, et al. (2002) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia incidence during socioeconomic transition: selective increase in children from 1 to 4 years. Leukemia 16:720–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenkinson HC, Hawkins MM, Stiller CA, et al. (2004) Long-term population-based risks of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer in Britain. Br J Cancer 91:1905–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaatsch P, Steliarova-Foucher E, Crocetti E, et al. (2006) Time trends of cancer incidence in European children (1978–1997): Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer 42:1961–1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kabuto M, Nitta H, Yamamoto S, et al. (2006) Childhood leukemia and magnetic fields in Japan: A case-control study of childhood leukemia and residential power-frequency magnetic fields in Japan. Int J Cancer 119:643–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kendall GM, Smith TJ (2005) Doses from radon and its decay products to children. J Radiol Prot 25:241–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kinlen L (2004) Infections and immune factors in cancer: The role of epidemiology. Oncogene 23:6341–6348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kraemer KH, Lee M-M, Andrews AD, et al. (1994) The role of sunlight and DNA repair in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The xeroderma pigmentosum paradigm. Arch Dermatol 130:1018–1021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kramárová E, Stiller CA (1996) The international classification of childhood cancer. Int J Cancer 68:759–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laurier D, Valenty M, Tirmarche M (2001) Radon exposure and the risk of leukemia: A review of epidemiological studies. Health Phys 81:272–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee C-L, Hsieh K-S, Ko Y-C (2003) Trends in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in boys and girls in Taiwan after large-scale hepatitis B vaccination. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:57–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lightfoot T, Bunch K, Ansell P, et al. (2005) Ovulation induction, assisted conception and childhood cancer. Eur J Cancer 41:715–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Linet MS, Wacholder S, Zahm SH (2005) Interpreting epidemiologic research: Lessons from studies of childhood cancer. Pediatrics 112:218–232Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Little J (1999) Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer, IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Magnani C, Pastore G, Coebergh JWW, et al. (2006) Trends in survival after childhood cancer in Europe, 1978–1997: Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project (ACCIS). Eur J Cancer 42:1981–2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marsden HB, Birch JM, Swindell R (1981) Germ cell tumours of childhood: A review of 137 cases. J Clin Pathol 34:879–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marsden HB, Newton WA (1986) New look at mesoblastic nephroma. J Clin Pathol 39:508–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Martin RM, Gunnell D, Owen CG, et al. (2005) Breast-feeding and childhood cancer: A systematic review with metaanalysis. Int J Cancer 117:1020–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mathers CD, Fat DM, Inoue M, et al. (2005) Counting the dead and what they died from: An assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ 83:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McNally RJQ, Eden TOB (2004) An infectious aetiology for childhood acute leukaemia: A review of the evidence. Br J Haematol 127:243–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McNally RJQ, Kelsey AM, Cairns DP, et al. (2001) Temporal increases in the incidence of childhood solid tumors seen in Northwest England (1954–1998) are likely to be real. Cancer 92:1967–1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mezei G, Kheifets L (2006) Selection bias and its implications for case-control studies: A case study of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukaemia. Int J Epidemiol 35:397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mourali N, Tunisia—Institut Salah-Azaiz, 1969–1982. In: Parkin DM, Stiller CA, Draper GJ, et al., (eds) (1988) International Incidence of Childhood Cancer (IARC Scientific Publications No. 87). International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nandakumar A, Anantha N, Appaji L, et al. (1996) Descriptive epidemiology of childhood cancers in Bangalore, India. Cancer Causes Control 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Narod SA, Hawkins MM, Robertson CM, et al. (1997) Congenital anomalies and childhood cancer in Great Britain. Am J Hum Genet 60:474–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Narod SA, Stiller C, Lenoir GM (1991) An estimate of the heritable fraction of childhood cancer. Br J Cancer 63:993–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Olsen JH, Garwicz S, Hertz H, et al. (1993) Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. BMJ 307:1030–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parkes SE, Muir KR, Al Sheyyab M, et al. (1993) Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children 1957–1986: incidence, treatment and outcome. Br J Surg 80:502–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Parkes SE, Muir KR, Southern L, et al. (1994) Neonatal tumours: A thirty-year population-based study. Med Pediatr Oncol 22:309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Parkin DM (2006) The global health burden of infectionassociated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer 118:3030–3044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sørensen M, Carstensen H, et al. (2006) Increasing incidence of childhood tumours of the central nervous system in Denmark, 1980–1996. Br J Cancer 95:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raimondi S, Pedotti P, Taioli E (2005) Meta-analysis of cancer incidence in children born after assisted reproductive technologies. Br J Cancer 93:1053–1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ries LAG, Harkins D, Krapcho M, et al. (2006) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2003, National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Robison LL, Green DM, Hudson M, et al. (2005) Longterm outcomes of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 104:2557–2564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, et al. (2005) Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45:265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roman E, Fear NT, Ansell P, et al. (2002) Vitamin K and childhood cancer: Analysis of individual patient data from six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 86:63–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sankila R, Martos Jiménez MC, Miljus D, et al. (2006) Geographical comparison of cancer survival in European children (1988–1997): Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer 42:1972–1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schilling FH, Spix C, Berthold F, et al. (2002) Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. N Eng J Med 346:1047–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scott RH, Stiller CA, Walker L, et al. (2006) Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour. J Med Genet 43:705–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smith MA, Freidlin B, Gloeckler Ries LA, et al. (1998) Trends in reported incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in children in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1269–1277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith MA, Freidlin B, Ries LAG, et al. (2000) Increased incidence rates but no space-time clustering of childhood astrocytoma in Sweden, 1973–1992: A population-based study of pediatric brain tumors (corres). Cancer 88:1492–1493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Steliarova-Foucher E, Stiller C, Kaatsch P, et al. (2004) Geographical patterns and time trends of cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents in Europe since the 1970s (the ACCIS project): An epidemiological study. Lancet 364:2097–2105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Steliarova-Foucher E, Stiller C, Lacour B, et al. (2005) International classification of childhood cancer, third edition. Cancer 103:1457–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stewart A, Webb J, Hewitt D (1958) A survey of childhood malignancies. Br Med J 30:1495–1508Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stiller C (2007) Childhood cancer in Britain: Incidence, Survival, Mortality. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stiller CA (1994) Centralised treatment, entry to trials and survival. Br J Cancer 70:352–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stiller CA, Aetiology and Epidemiology. In: Pinkerton CR, Plowman PN, Pieters R, (eds) (2004) Paediatric Oncology. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stiller CA (2004) Epidemiology and genetics of childhood cancer. Oncogene 23:6429–6444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stiller CA (2006) Constitutional chromosomal abnormalities and childhood cancer. Ital J Pediatr 31:347–353Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stiller CA, Passmore SJ, Kroll ME, et al. (2006) Patterns of care and survival for patients aged under 40 years with bone sarcoma in Britain, 1980–1994. Br J Cancer 94:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Strahm B, Malkin D (2006) Hereditary cancer predisposition in children: Genetic basis and clinical implications. Int J Cancer 119:2001–2006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Taylor A, Hawkins M, Griffiths A, et al. (2004) Long-term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer in the UK. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators (2002) The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study of exposure to domestic sources of ionising radiation: 2: gamma radiation. Br J Cancer 86:1727–1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Valery PC, Holly EA, Sleigh AC, et al. (2005) Hernias and Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumours: A pooled analysis and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 6:485–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Williams D (2002) Cancer after nuclear fallout: Lessons from the Chernobyl accident. Nature Rev Cancer 2:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Woods WG, Tuchman M, Robison LL, et al. (1996) A population-based study of the usefulness of screening for neuroblastoma. Lancet 348:1682–1687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles A. Stiller
    • 1
  1. 1.CCRGOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations