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Post-processing of Handwritten Pitman’s Shorthand Using Unigram and Heuristic Approaches

  • Swe Myo Htwe
  • Colin Higgins
  • Graham Leedham
  • Ma Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3163)

Abstract

The computer transcription of handwritten Pitman’s shorthand has enormous potential as a means of rapid text entry to today’s handheld devices. Recognition errors caused in pattern segmentation and classification raises the incidence of ambiguous interpretation in existing systems and the paper proposes a well-established unigram technique and an efficient heuristic method to reduce ambiguity in a linguistic post processor. Heuristics applied in our transcription system are: – firstly, incorporating visual stimulus as used by human readers; secondly, applying knowledge of the most common words of Pitman shorthand; and finally, adding knowledge of collocation. An experiment using a phonetic Lexicon of 5000 entries shows the distribution of ambiguity in a shorthand lexicon due to the similarity of outlines’ and estimates the transcription accuracy of 94%.

Keywords

Word Frequency Anchor Node Human Reader Ambiguous Interpretation Statistical Language Modeling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

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    Leedham, C.G., Downton, A.C.: On-line recognition of Pitman’s shorthand: an evaluation of potential. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies 24, 375–393 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Qiao, Y., Leedham, C.G.: Segmentation of handwritten Pitman shorthand outlines using an interactive heuristic search. In: Proc. 5th International Graphonomics Conference (ISBN 0- 9630246-0-4), pp. 157-162, Tempe, Arizona, USA, pp. 27-30 (October 1991)Google Scholar
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    Qiao, Y., Leedham, C.G.: Segmentation and recognition of handwritten Pitman Shorthand outlines using an Interactive Heuristic Search. Pattern Recognition 26(3), 433–441 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Nagabhushan, P., Anami, B.: Dictionary Supported Generation of English Text from Pitman Shorthand Scripted Phonetic Text. In: Language engineering conference, Hyderabad, India, December 13-15, p. 33 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swe Myo Htwe
    • 1
  • Colin Higgins
    • 1
  • Graham Leedham
    • 2
  • Ma Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and ITThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.School of Computer EngineeringNanyang Technology UniversitySingapore

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