Real-Time Photo-Realistic Rendering for Surgical Simulations with Graphics Hardware
Computer-based surgical simulations are being increasingly used for training and skills assessment. They provide an efficient and cost effective alternative to traditional training methods. To allow for both basic and advanced skills assessment, the required perceptual fidelity is essential to capturing the natural behavior of the operator. The level of realism in terms of object and scene appearance determines the faithfulness and hence the degree of immersion experienced by the trainee in the virtual world. This paper presents a novel photo-realistic rendering approach based on real-time per-pixel effects by using the graphics hardware. Improved realism is achieved by a combined use of specular reflectance and refractance maps to model the effect of surface details and mucous layer on the overall visual appearance of the tissue. The key steps involved in the proposed technique are described, and quantitative performance assessment results demonstrate the practical advantages of the proposed technique.
KeywordsAugmented Reality Minimal Invasive Surgery Visual Appearance Mucous Layer Graphic Hardware
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Shah, J., Darzi, A.: Simulation and Skills Assessment. In: International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality (MIAR 2001), Hong Kong, pp. 5–9 (2001)Google Scholar
- 2.Bro-Nielsen, M.: Simulation Techniques for Minimally Invasive Surgery. Journal of Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, 106–110 (1997)Google Scholar
- 4.Stylopoulos, N., et al.: CELTS: A Clinically-Based Computer Enhanced Laparoscopic Training System. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality (2003)Google Scholar
- 5.Peercy, M.S., Olano, M., Airey, J., Ungar, J.: Interactive Multi-Pass Programmable Shading. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 425–432 (2000)Google Scholar
- 6.Eveirtt, C.: Mathematics of Per-Pixel Lighting, http://developer.nvidia.com/object/mathematicsofperpixellighting.html
- 7.Neider, J., Davis, T., Woo, M.: OpenGL Programming Guide, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
- 8.Phong, B., T.: Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures. Communications of the ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975)Google Scholar
- 10.Ebert, D.S. (ed.): Texturing and Modelling: A Procedural Approach. AP Professional (1994)Google Scholar
- 11.Fernando, R., Kilgard, M.J.: The Cg Tutorial. Addison Wesley, Reading (2003)Google Scholar
- 12.Mark, W.R., Glanville, R.S., Akeley, K., Kilgard, M.J.: Cg: A System for Programming Graphics Hardware in a C-Like Language. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 896–907 (2003)Google Scholar
- 13.Fernando, R. (ed.): GPU Gems. Addison Wesley, Reading (2004)Google Scholar