Real-Time Photo-Realistic Rendering for Surgical Simulations with Graphics Hardware

  • Mohamed A. ElHelw
  • Benny P. Lo
  • Ara Darzi
  • Guang-Zhong Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3150)


Computer-based surgical simulations are being increasingly used for training and skills assessment. They provide an efficient and cost effective alternative to traditional training methods. To allow for both basic and advanced skills assessment, the required perceptual fidelity is essential to capturing the natural behavior of the operator. The level of realism in terms of object and scene appearance determines the faithfulness and hence the degree of immersion experienced by the trainee in the virtual world. This paper presents a novel photo-realistic rendering approach based on real-time per-pixel effects by using the graphics hardware. Improved realism is achieved by a combined use of specular reflectance and refractance maps to model the effect of surface details and mucous layer on the overall visual appearance of the tissue. The key steps involved in the proposed technique are described, and quantitative performance assessment results demonstrate the practical advantages of the proposed technique.


Augmented Reality Minimal Invasive Surgery Visual Appearance Mucous Layer Graphic Hardware 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Shah, J., Darzi, A.: Simulation and Skills Assessment. In: International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality (MIAR 2001), Hong Kong, pp. 5–9 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bro-Nielsen, M.: Simulation Techniques for Minimally Invasive Surgery. Journal of Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, 106–110 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neyret, F., Heiss, R., Senegas, F.: Realistic Rendering of an Organ Surface in Real- Time for Laparoscopic Surgery Simulation. The Visual Computer 18(3), 135–149 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stylopoulos, N., et al.: CELTS: A Clinically-Based Computer Enhanced Laparoscopic Training System. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peercy, M.S., Olano, M., Airey, J., Ungar, J.: Interactive Multi-Pass Programmable Shading. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 425–432 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eveirtt, C.: Mathematics of Per-Pixel Lighting,
  7. 7.
    Neider, J., Davis, T., Woo, M.: OpenGL Programming Guide, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Phong, B., T.: Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures. Communications of the ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Torrance, K.E., Sparrow, E.M.: Theory for Off-Specular Refelction from Roughned Surfaces. Optical Society of America 57(9), 1105–1114 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ebert, D.S. (ed.): Texturing and Modelling: A Procedural Approach. AP Professional (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fernando, R., Kilgard, M.J.: The Cg Tutorial. Addison Wesley, Reading (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mark, W.R., Glanville, R.S., Akeley, K., Kilgard, M.J.: Cg: A System for Programming Graphics Hardware in a C-Like Language. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 896–907 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fernando, R. (ed.): GPU Gems. Addison Wesley, Reading (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. ElHelw
    • 1
  • Benny P. Lo
    • 1
  • Ara Darzi
    • 1
  • Guang-Zhong Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal Society/Wolfson Medical Image Computing LaboratoryImperial College LondonLondonUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations