Advertisement

Temporal Post-processing of Decision Tree Outputs for Sports Video Categorisation

  • Edward Jaser
  • William Christmas
  • Josef Kittler
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3138)

Abstract

In this paper, we describe a multistage decision making system to deal with the problem of automatic sports video classification. The system is founded on the concept of cues, i.e. pieces of visual evidence, characteristic of certain categories of sports that are extracted from key frames. The main decision making mechanism is a decision tree which generates hypotheses concerning the semantics of the sports video content. The final stage of the decision making process is a Hidden Markov Model system which bridges the gap between the semantic content categorisation defined by the user and the actual visual content categories. The latter is often ambiguous, as the same visual content may be attributed to different sport categories, depending on the context. We tested the system using two setups of HMMs. In the first, we construct and train an HMM model for each sport. A post-processing step is needed in this setup to combine the outcomes of the individual HMMs. In the second setup, we eliminate the need for post-processing by constructing a single HMM with each node representing one of the sports we want to detect. Comparing the results obtained from both setups showed that a single HMM delivered the better performance.

References

  1. 1.
    Chang, P., Han, M., Gong, Y.: Extract Highlights From Baseball Game Video With Hidden Markov Models. In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ekin, A., Tekalp, A.M., Mehrotra, R.: Automatic Soccer Video Analysis and Summarization. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 12(8), 796–807 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gong, Y., Lim, T.S., Chua, H.C.: Automatic Parsing of TV Soccer Programs. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, May 1995, pp. 167–174 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jaser, E., Kittler, J., Christmas, W.: Building Classifier Ensembles for Automatic Sports Classification. In: Windeatt, T., Roli, F. (eds.) MCS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2709, pp. 366–374. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kijak, E., Gravier, G., Gros, P., Oisel, L., Bimbot, F.: HMM Based Structuring of Tennis Videos Using Visual and Audio Cues. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), July 2003, vol. 3, pp. 309–312 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kittler, J., Messer, K., Christmas, W.: Generation of Semantic Cues for Sports Video Annotation. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2001), Thessaloniki, Greece, October 2001, pp. 26–29 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levienaise-Obadia, B., Kittler, J., Christmas, W.: Defining Quantisation Strategies and a Perceptual Similarity Measure for Texture-Based Aannotation and Retrieval. In: In IEEE, editor, ICPR 2000, vol. III (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matas, J., Koubaroulis, D., Kittler, J.: Colour Image Retrieval and Object Recognition Using the Multimodal Neighbourhood Signature. In: Vernon, D. (ed.) ECCV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1842, pp. 48–64. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Messer, K., Kittler, J.: A Region-Based Image Database System Using Colour and Texture. Pattern Recognition Letters, 1323–1330 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Quinlan, J.R.: C4.5: Programs for machine learning. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rabiner, L.R.: A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition. IEEE 77(2), 257–286 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu, P., Xie, L., Chang, S., Divakaram, A., Vetro, A., Sun, S.: Algorithms and System for Segmentation and Structure Analysis in Soccer Video. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo., ICME (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Jaser
    • 1
  • William Christmas
    • 1
  • Josef Kittler
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal ProcessingUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations