Modelling Politeness in Natural Language Generation

  • Kaśka Porayska-Pomsta
  • Chris Mellish
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3123)

Abstract

One of the main objectives of research in Natural Language generation (NLG) is to account for linguistic variation in a systematic way. Research on linguistic politeness provides important clues as to the possible causes of linguistic variation and the ways in which it may be modelled formally. In this paper we present a simple language generation model for choosing the appropriate surface realisations of tutoring responses based on the politeness notion of face. We adapt the existing definition of face to the demands of the educational genre and we demonstrate how a politeness driven NLG system may result in a more natural and a more varied form of linguistic output.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen, J.F., Perrault, C.R.: Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence 15, 143–178 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bateman, J.A.: Enabling technology for multilingual natural language generation: the KPML development environment. Natural Language Engineering 3(1), 15–55 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, P., Levinson, S.: Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cassell, J., Bickmore, T.: Negotiated collusion: Modeling social language and its relationship effects in intelligent agents. User Modeling and Adaptive Interfaces (2002) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chi, M.T.H., Siler, S.A., Jeong, H., Yamauchi, T., Hausmann, R.G.: Learning from human tutoring. Cognitive Science 25, 471–533 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen, P. R.: On knowing what to say: Planning speech acts. Technical Report 118, University of Toronto (1978) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fetzer, A.: No Thanks: a socio-semantic approach. Linguistik 14, 137–160 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Halliday, M.A.K.: An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold, London (1985)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leech, G.N.: Language and tact, Amsterdam (1980)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lepper, M.R., Chabay, R.W.: Socializing the intelligent tutor: Bringing empathy to computer tutors. In: Mandl, Lesgold (eds.) Learning Issues for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 114–137. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lepper, M.R., Woolverton, M., Mumme, D.L., Gurtner, J.: Motivational Techniques of Expert Human Tutors: Lessons for the Design of Computer-Based Tutors  ch.3, pp. 75–107. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malone, T.W., Lepper, M.R.: Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In: Snow, R.E., Farr, M.J. (eds.) Aptitude, Learning and Instruction: Conative and Affective Process Analyses, vol. 3, pp. 223–253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (1987)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Penstein-Rose, C., Di Eugenio, B., Moore, J.D.: A dialogue based tutoring system for basic electricity and electronics. In: Lajoie, V.M. (ed.) Artificial Intelligence in Education, p. 759. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Porayska-Pomsta, K., Mellish, C.S., Pain, H.: Aspects of speech act categorization: Towards generating teachers language. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 11(3), 254–272 (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Porayska-Pomsta, K.: Influence of situational context on language production: Modelling teachers corrective responses. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh (2003) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Searle, J.: Speech Acts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1969)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walker, M.A., Cahn, J.E., Whittaker, S. J.: Improvising Linguistic Style: Social and Affective Bases for Agent Personality. In: Proc. of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents (1997) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wojtczuk, K.: Zachowania jezykowe nauczycieli wsytuacji lekcji szkolnej. PhD thesis, Uniwersytet Siedlecki (1996)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaśka Porayska-Pomsta
    • 1
  • Chris Mellish
    • 2
  1. 1.School of InformaticsUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Department of Computing Science, King’s CollegeUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations