1, 2, 3 .... Action! Directing Real Actors and Virtual Characters

  • Isabel Machado
  • Paul Brna
  • Ana Paiva
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3105)

Abstract

The new interactive ways of storytelling, which can be realised as interactive narratives, virtual storytelling, interactive fiction, interactive drama, are often regarded as a significant break from traditional storytelling methods. In this paper we focus on the role of a person in an interactive storytelling context who facilitates the story construction process, the Director. The term Director is often associated with roles such as theatre director, stage director, film director or even television director. The meaning usually assigned to this concept is of someone who: ”oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavours and aspects of production. The director’s function is to ensure the quality and completeness of a theatrical product”. In our research, the concept of a Director is extended and does not only have the role of supervising the acting in a play where every actor knows his/her role in a well-known plot, but to supervise the role being played by a set of autonomous virtual characters and to provide support to the users that engage in the story by controlling and commanding virtual actors. In our view, our concept of a Director is challenging because its role is vital in the sense that it does not only supervise a set of synthetic characters but has to accommodate the choices made by the users, within our context children, and at the same time guarantee that the coherence of the story is maintained.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Freytag, G.: Freytag’s technique of the drama: an exposition of dramatic composition and art, Scott, Foresman, Chicago (1900)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clarke, A., Mitchell, G.: Film and Development of Interactive Narrative. In: Balet, O., Subsol, G., Torguet, P. (eds.) ICVS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2197, p. 81. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayes-Roth, B.: Acting in character. In: Petta, P., Trappl, R. (eds.) Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors. LNCS, vol. 1195, pp. 120–165. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sgouros, N.: Dynamic generation, management and resolution of interactive plots. Aritificial Intelligence 107(1), 29–62 (1999)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Towards Integrating Plot and Character for Interactive Drama. In: Dautenhahn, K., Bond, A., Cañamero, D., Edmonds, B. (eds.) Socially Intelligent Agents - creating relationships with computers and robots of the Multiagent Systems. Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations Series. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bates, J.: The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents, Technical Report CMU–CS–94–136, Carnegie Mellon University (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjalmsson, H.: Fully embodied conversational avatars: Making communicative behaviours autonomous. Autonomous agents and Multi-Agent Systems 2(1) (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perlin, K., Goldberg, A.: Improv: a system for scripting interactive actors in virtual worlds. Computer Graphics 24(3) (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Machado, I., Paiva, A., Brna, P.: Real characters in Virtual Stories. In: Balet, O., Subsol, G., Torguet, P. (eds.) ICVS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2197, p. 127. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Propp, V.: Morphology of the folktale. University of Texas Press, Austin (1968)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mateas, M.: An oz-centric review of interactive drama and believable agents. In: Veloso, M.M., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) Artificial Intelligence Today. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1600, pp. 297–328. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Machado, I., Paiva, A., Prada, R.: Is the wolf angry or ...just hungry? – Inspecting, disclosing and modifying characters’ minds. In: The Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Autonomous Agents. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dautenhahn, K., Coles, S.: Narrative Intelligence from the Bottom Up: A Computational Framework for the Study of Story-Telling in Autonomous Agents. The Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Special Issue on Starting from Society - the application of social analogies to computational systems (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Mead, S.J.: Agent’s Interaction in Virtual Storytelling. In: de Antonio, A., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D. (eds.) IVA 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2190, p. 156. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Machado
    • 1
  • Paul Brna
    • 2
  • Ana Paiva
    • 3
  1. 1.ISCTEUniversity of Leeds & INESC-IDLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.School of InformaticsNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.IST & INESC-IDLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations