Comparing migrants to non-migrants: The case of Dutch migration to New Zealand

  • Joop Hartog
  • Rainer Winkelmann
Part of the Population Economics book series (POPULATION)


We analyse post-war Dutch migration to New Zealand. We document that history, reflect on analytical and econometric modelling and then combine a sample of Dutch migrants in New Zealand with a representative sample of Dutch in The Netherlands to estimate wage equations and the determinants of the migration decision. We use the results for ex post evaluation of the migration decision.

Key words

Dutch emigration New Zealand immigration returns to migration self-selection 

JEL classification

F22 J61 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison PD (1984) Event History Analysis. Sage University Papers series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–046, Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson AB, Rainwater L, Smeeding T (1995) Income Distribution in OECD Countries, Evidence from the Luxemburg Income Study. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer T, Pereira PT, Vogler M, Zimmermann KF (2002) Portuguese Migrants in the German Labor Market: Selection and Performance. International Migration Review 36 (2): 467–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berg G van den (1990) Search Behaviour, Transitions to Non-Participation and the Duration of Unemployment. Economic Journal 100:842–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg G van den (1999) Duration models: specifications, identification and multiple durantions. In: Heckmann JJ and Lazear E (eds) Handbook of Econometrics. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  6. Borjas G (1987) Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants. American Economic Review 77(4):531–553Google Scholar
  7. Borjas G (1999) The economic analysis of immigration. In: Ashenfelter O, Card D (eds) Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol 3, Chapt 28. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  8. Björklund A, Moffitt RM (1987) The estimation of wage gains and welfare gains in self-selection. Review of Economics and Statistics 69(1):42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiswick BR (2000) Are immigrants favorably self-selected? An economic analysis, Bonn: IZA Discussion Paper 131Google Scholar
  10. Dixon S (1998) Growth in the dispersion of earnings: 1984–97. Labour Market Bulletin (1 & 2): 71–107Google Scholar
  11. Dustman C, Kirchkamp O (2001) The Optimal Migration Duration and Activity Choice after Remigration, Bonn: IZA Discussion Paper 266Google Scholar
  12. Elich JH, Blauw PW (1981). En toch terug, Onderzoeksrapport Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, FEW SociologieGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottschalk P, Smeeding T (1997) Cross-national comparisons of earnings and income inequality. Journal of Economic Literature 35(2):633–687Google Scholar
  14. Gould J (1982) The rake’s progress: The New Zealand economy since 1945. Hodder and Stoughton, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  15. Hartog J, Veenbergen JG (1978) Dutch treat: long-run changes in income inequality in the Netherlands. De Economist 126(4):521–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Narendranathan W (1993) Job search in a dynamic environment 2014 an empirical analysis. Oxford Economic Payers 45:1–22Google Scholar
  17. Priemus B (1997) Naar de andere kant van de wereld, doctoraal stageverslag Politicologie, Universiteit van AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Puhani P (2000) The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique. Journal of Economic Surveys 14:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Quandt R (1972) Methods for Estimating Switching Regressions. Journal of the American Statistical Association 67:338, 306–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roed M (2000) The return to return migration 2014 an empirical approach, Oslo: Institute for Social ResearchGoogle Scholar
  21. Roy AD (1950) The Distribution of Earnings and Individual Output. Economic Journal 60(3): 489–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roy AD (1951) Some Thoughts on the Distribution of Earnings. Oxford Economic Papers 3: 135–146Google Scholar
  23. Schwarz A (1976) Migration, age and education. Journal of Political Economy 84(4, part 1): 701–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wetzels C (1999) Squeezing birth into working life. Ph.D. dissertation Universiteit van Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute Research Series 194Google Scholar
  25. Winkelmann R (2000) The Labor Market Performance of European Immigrants in New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s. International Migration Review 34(1):33–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Winkelmann R (2001a) Immigration Policies and their Impact: The case of New Zealand and Australia. In: Djajic S (ed) International Migration: Trends, Policy, and Economic Impact, Routledge, 1–20Google Scholar
  27. Winkelmann R (2001b) Correctly Interpreting the Results from a Log-Linear Regression under Heteroskedasticty 2014 Methods and an Application to the Relative Wages of Immigrants, (in German) Jahrbikher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 221:418–431Google Scholar
  28. Winkelmann L, Winkelmann R (1998) Immigrants in the New Zealand labour market: A study of their labour market outcomes, Report for the New Zealand Department of LabourGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joop Hartog
    • 1
  • Rainer Winkelmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Afdeling Algemene EconomieUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Socioeconomic InstituteUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations