Providing Receipt-Freeness in Mixnet-Based Voting Protocols

  • Byoungcheon Lee
  • Colin Boyd
  • Ed Dawson
  • Kwangjo Kim
  • Jeongmo Yang
  • Seungjae Yoo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2971)


It had been thought that it is difficult to provide receipt-freeness in mixnet-based electronic voting schemes. Any kind of user chosen randomness can be used to construct a receipt, since a user can prove to a buyer how he had encrypted the ballot. In this paper we propose a simple and efficient method to incorporate receipt-freeness in mixnet-based electronic voting schemes by using the well known re-encryption technique and designated verifier re-encryption proof (DVRP). In our scheme a voter has to prepare his encrypted ballot through a randomization service provided by a tamper resistant randomizer (TRR), in such a way that he finally loses his knowledge on randomness. This method can be used in most mixnet-based electronic voting scheme to provide receipt-freeness.


Electronic voting Receipt-freeness Mixnet Re-encryption Designated-verifier re-encryption proof Tamper resistant randomizer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Abe98]
    Abe, M.: Universally verifiable mix-net with verification work independent of the number of mix-servers. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1998. LNCS, vol. 1403, pp. 437–447. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [Abe99]
    Abe, M.: Mix-networks in permutation networks. In: Lam, K.-Y., Okamoto, E., Xing, C. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1716, pp. 258–273. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [AI03]
    Abe, M., Imai, H.: Flaws in some robust optimistic mixnets. In: Safavi-Naini, R., Seberry, J. (eds.) ACISP 2003. LNCS, vol. 2727, pp. 39–50. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [Ben87]
    Benaloh, J.: Verifiable secret-ballot elections. PhD thesis, Yale University, Department of Computer Science, New Haven, CT (September 1987)Google Scholar
  5. [Bau01]
    Baudron, O., Fouque, P.-A., Pointcheval, D., Poupard, G., Stern, J.: Practical multi-candidate election system. In: Shavit, N. (ed.) Proc. of the 20th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 274–283. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  6. [BT94]
    Benaloh, J., Tuinstra, D.: Receipt-free secret-ballot elections. In: Proc. of 26th Symp. on Theory of Computing (STOC 1994), New York, pp. 544–553 (1994)Google Scholar
  7. [CFSY96]
    Cramer, R., Franklin, M., Schoenmakers, B., Yung, M.: Multi-authority secret ballot elections with linear work. In: Maurer, U.M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1070, pp. 72–83. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  8. [CGS97]
    Cramer, R., Gennaro, R., Schoenmakers, B.: A secure an optimally efficient multi-authority election schemes. In: Fumy, W. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1233, pp. 103–118. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  9. [Cha88]
    Chaum, D.: Elections with unconditionally- secret ballots and disruption equivalent to breaking RSA. In: Günther, C.G. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1988. LNCS, vol. 330, pp. 177–182. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  10. [ElG85]
    ElGamal, T.: A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. IEEE Trans. on IT 31(4), 467–472 (1985)Google Scholar
  11. [ES]
    Electoral systems, Administration and Cost of Elections Project, available at
  12. [FOO92]
    Fujioka, A., Okamoto, T., Ohta, K.: A practical secret voting scheme for large scale election. In: Zheng, Y., Seberry, J. (eds.) AUSCRYPT 1992. LNCS, vol. 718, pp. 244–260. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  13. [FS01]
    Furukawa, J., Sako, K.: An efficient scheme for proving a shuffle. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, pp. 368–387. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [Gol02]
    Golle, P., Zhong, S., Boneh, D., Jakobsson, M., Juels, A.: Optimistic mixing for exit-polls. In: Zheng, Y. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2501, pp. 451–465. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [Gro03]
    Groth, J.: A Verifiable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) PKC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2567, pp. 145–160. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [Hirt01]
    Hirt, M.: Multi-party computation: Efficient protocols, general adversaries, and voting. Ph.D. Thesis, ETH Zurich, Reprint as. ETH Series in Information Security and Cryptography, vol. 3, Hartung- Gorre Verlag, Konstanz (2001); ISBN 3-89649-747-2Google Scholar
  17. [HS00]
    Hirt, M., Sako, K.: Efficient receipt-free voting based on homomorphic encryption. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 539–556. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [Jak98a]
    Jakobsson, M.: A practical mix. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1998. LNCS, vol. 1403, pp. 448–461. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [Jak98b]
    Jakobsson, M.: Flash mixing. In: Proc. of the 18th ACM Symposium on PODC 1998, pp. 83–89 (1998)Google Scholar
  20. [JSI96]
    Jakobsson, M., Sako, K., Impagliazzo, R.: Designated verifier proofs and their applications. In: Maurer, U.M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1070, pp. 143–154. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  21. [Kim01]
    Kim, K., Kim, J., Lee, B., Ahn, G.: Experimental design of worldwide Internet voting system using PKI. In: SSGRR 2001, L’Aquila, Italy, August 6-10 (2001)Google Scholar
  22. [LK00]
    Lee, B., Kim, K.: Receipt-free electronic voting through collaboration of voter and honest verifier. In: Proceeding of JW-ISC2000, Okinawa, Japan, January 25-26, pp. 101–108 (2000)Google Scholar
  23. [LK02]
    Lee, B., Kim, K.: Receipt-free electronic voting scheme with a tamperresistant randomizer. In: Lee, P.J., Lim, C.H. (eds.) ICISC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2587, pp. 389–406. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [MBC01]
    Magkos, E., Burmester, M., Chrissikopoulos, V.: Receipt-freeness in large-scale elections without untappable channels. In: 1st IFIP Conference on ECommerce / E-business / E-Government, Zurich, October 2001, pp. 683–693. Kluwer Academics Publishers, Dordrecht (2001)Google Scholar
  25. [Nef01]
    Neff, A.: A verifiable secret shuffle and its application to E-voting. In: ACM CCS 2001, pp. 116–125. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [Oka97]
    Okamoto, T.: Receipt-free electronic voting schemes for large scale elections. In: Christianson, B., Lomas, M. (eds.) Security Protocols 1997. LNCS, vol. 1361, pp. 25–35. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [Ohk99]
    Ohkubo, M., Miura, F., Abe, M., Fujioka, A., Okamoto, T.: An improvement on a practical secret voting scheme. In: Zheng, Y., Mambo, M. (eds.) ISW 1999. LNCS, vol. 1729, pp. 225–234. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [Pai99]
    Paillier, P.: Public-key cryptosystems based on discrete logarithms residues. In: Stern, J. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1592, pp. 223–238. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  29. [Ped91]
    Pedersen, T.: A threshold cryptosystem without a trusted party. In: Davies, D.W. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1991. LNCS, vol. 547, pp. 522–526. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
  30. [PIK93]
    Park, C., Itoh, K., Kurosawa, K.: Efficient anonymous channel and all/nothing election scheme. In: Helleseth, T. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1993. LNCS, vol. 765, pp. 248–259. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  31. [SK94]
    Sako, K., Kilian, J.: Secure voting using partial compatible homomorphisms. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1994. LNCS, vol. 839, pp. 411–424. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  32. [SK95]
    Sako, K., Kilian, J.: Receipt-free mix-type voting scheme – a practical solution to the implementation of a voting booth. In: Guillou, L.C., Quisquater, J.-J. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 1995. LNCS, vol. 921, pp. 393–403. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  33. [Wik02]
    Wikstrom, D.: How to break, fix, and optimize optimistic mix for exit-polls. SICS Technical Report, T2002:24 (2002), available at

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byoungcheon Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Colin Boyd
    • 1
  • Ed Dawson
    • 1
  • Kwangjo Kim
    • 3
  • Jeongmo Yang
    • 2
  • Seungjae Yoo
    • 2
  1. 1.Information Security Research CenterQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Joongbu UniversityChungnamKorea
  3. 3.Information and Communications UniversityDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations