Advertisement

Prüfungsängstlichkeit im Kulturvergleich

Chapter

Zusammenfassung

In der Prüfungsängstlichkeitsforschung gewinnen kulturvergleichende Ansätze zunehmend an Bedeutung. Dabei lässt sich Kultur aus zwei Perspektiven betrachten, aus einer „etischen“ und einer „emischen“ Perspektive (Berry, 1999). Die etische Betrachtungsweise entspricht einer kulturübergreifenden Außensicht. Kultur wird hierbei meist anhand von kulturellen Merkmalen, wie beispielsweise sozialen Normen oder Werten, operationalisiert und demnach als eine den Menschen beeinflussende Variable aufgefasst.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Ahlawat, K. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Yarmouk Test Anxiety Inventory (Y-TAI). In R. Schwarzer, H. M. dervan Ploeg & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 6, pp. 263–278). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  2. Araki, N., Iwawaki, S. & Spielberger, C. D. (1992). Construction and validation of a Japanese adaptation of the Test Anxiety Inventory. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 5, 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry, J. W. (1999). Emics and etics: A symbiotic conception. Culture and Psychology, 5, 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H. & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bodas, J. & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8 (1), 65–88. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodas, J, Ollendick, T. H. & Sovani, A. V. (2008). Test anxiety in Indian children: A cross-cultural perspective. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 21 (4), 387–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchwald, P. (2002). Dyadisches Coping in mündlichen Prüfungen. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  8. Comunian, A. L. (1985). The development and validation of the Italian form of Test Anxiety Inventory. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 4, pp. 215 – 220). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  9. Deffenbacher, J. L. (1980). Worry and emotionality in test anxiety. In I. G. Sarason (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 111–128). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1976). Test and general anxiety in Mexican-American school children. In C. D. Spielberger & R. Diaz-Guerrero (Eds.), Cross-cultural anxiety (Vol. 1, pp. 135–142). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. El-Safty, M. M. (1995). Test anxiety and its relation to achievement motivation: A cross-cultural study between high school students in Egypt and Arab Emirates. Derasat Nafseyah, 5, 71–106.Google Scholar
  12. El-Zahhar, N. E. & Hocevar, D. (1991). Cultural and sexual differences in test anxiety, trait anxiety and arousability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22, 238–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Emmite, P. L. & Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1983). Cross-cultural differences and similarities in coping style, anxiety, and success-failure on examinations. Series in Clinical and Community Psychology: Stress and Anxiety, 2, 191–206.Google Scholar
  14. Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal: Cognition and performance. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eysenck, H. J. & Rachman, S. (1965). The causes and cures of neurosis. London: Routledge & Kegan.Google Scholar
  16. Geen, R. G. (1977). The effects of anticipation of positive and negative outcomes on audience anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 715–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Green, K. E. (1981). Test anxiety level and test format preference. Psychological Reports, 48(2), 537–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hagtvet, K. A. (1984). A Norwegian adaptation of the Test Anxiety Inventory: A first tryout. International Review of Applied Psychology, 33(2), 257–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagtvet, K. A. & Sipos, K. (2004). Measuring anxiety by ordered categorical items in data with subgroup structure: The case of the Hungarian version of the trait anxiety scale of the state-trait anxiety inventory for children (STAIC-H). Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 17(1), 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47–77.Google Scholar
  21. Hill, K. T. (1972). Anxiety in the evaluative context. In W. W. Hartup (Ed.), The young child (Vol. 2., pp. 225–263). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Google Scholar
  22. Hill, K. T. & Wigfield, A. (1984). Test anxiety: A major educational problem and what can be done about it. Elementary School Journal, 85(1), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hocevar, D. & El-Zahhar, N. (1985). Test anxiety in the USA and Egypt: A paradigm for investigating psychometric characteristics across cultures. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer, & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 4, pp. 203 – 213). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  24. Hocevar, D., & El-Zahhar, N. (1988). Arousability, trait anxiety and the worry and emotionality components of test anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hodapp, V. (1982). Causal interference from non-experimental research on anxiety and educational achievement. In. H. W. Krohne & L. Laux (Eds.), Achievement, stress, and anxiety (pp. 355–372). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  26. Hodapp, V. (1991). Das Prüfungsängstlichkeitsinventar TAI-G: Eine erweiterte und modifizierte Version mit vier Komponenten. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 5, 121–130.Google Scholar
  27. Hodapp, V. (1996). The TAI-G: A multidimensional approach to the assessment of test anxiety. In C. Schwarzer & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Stress, anxiety, and coping in academic settings (pp. 95–130). Tübingen: Francke.Google Scholar
  28. Hodapp, V., Glanzmann, P. G. & Laux, L. (1995). Theory and measurement of test anxiety as a situation-specific trait. In C. D. Spielberger & P. Vagg (Eds.), Test anxiety: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 47 – 58). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  29. Hodapp, V., Rohrmann, S. & Ringeisen, T. (2011). Der Prüfungsangstfragebogen (PAF). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  30. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Kim, K., Won H., Liu, X., Liu, P. & Kitanishi, K. (1997). Students’ stress in China, Japan and Korea: A transcultural study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 43, 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Küpfer, K. (1997). Prüfungsängstlichkeit bei Studenten: Differentielle Diagnostik und differentielle Intervention. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  33. Larson, R. & Seepersad, S. (2003). Adolescents’ leisure time in the United States: Partying, sports, and the American experiment. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 99, 53–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lazarus, R. S. (1990). Theory-based stress measurement: Response. Psychological Inquiry, 1(1), 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Lehman, D. R., Chiu, C.-Y. & Schaller, M. (2004). Psychology and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 689–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liebert, R. M. & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu, X. C., Oda, S., Peng, X. & Asai, K. (1997). Life events and anxiety in Chinese medical students. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32(2), 63–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mandler, G. & Sarason, S. B. (1952). A study of anxiety and learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Man, F., Budejovice, C. & Hosek, V. (1989). The development and validation of the Czech form of the Test Anxiety Inventory. In R. Schwarzer, H. M. dervan Ploeg & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in Test Anxiety Research (Vol. 6, pp. 233–243). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  41. Morris, L. W. & Liebert, R. M. (1970). Relationship of cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety to physiological arousal and academic performance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Musch, J. & Bröder, A. (1999). Psychometrische Eigenschaften und Validität des multidimensionalen Prüfungsängstlichkeitsinventars TAI-G. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 13, 100–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Öner, N. & Kaymak, D. A. (1987). The transliteral equivalence and the reliability of the Turkish TAI. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 5, pp. 227–239). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  44. Peleg-Popko, O. & Klingman, A. (2002) Family environment, discrepancies between perceived actual and desirable environment, and children’s test and trait anxiety. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 30, 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Poortinga, Y. H. & Van de Vijver, F. J. (1987). Explaining crosscultural differences: Bias analysis and beyond. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 259 – 282.Google Scholar
  46. Richmond, B. O., Rodrigo, G. & Lusiardo, M. (1989). Measuring test anxiety among children in Uruguay. In R. Schwarzer, H. M. dervan Ploeg & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 6, pp. 215 – 222). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  47. Ringeisen, T. (2008). Emotions and coping during exams: A dissection of cultural variability by means of the tripartite self-construal model. Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  48. Ringeisen, T., Buchwald, P. & Hodapp, V. (2010). Capturing the multidimensionality of test anxiety in cross-cultural research: Adaptations of the German Test Anxiety Inventory. Cognition, Brain, Behavior: An interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 347–364.Google Scholar
  49. Rocklin, T. & Ren-Min, Y. (1989). Development and adaptation of the Chinese Test Anxiety Inventory: A research note. In R. Schwarzer, H. M. dervan Ploeg & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 6, pp. 245–251). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  50. Rost, D. H. & Schermer, F. J. (1987). Emotion and cognition in coping with test anxiety. Communication and Cognition, 20, 225–244.Google Scholar
  51. Sarason, I. G. (Ed.). (1980). Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  52. Sarason, I. G. (1984). Stress, anxiety and cognitive interference: Reaction to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 929–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schwarzer, R. (1984). Worry and emotionality as separate components in test anxiety. International Review of Applied Psychology, 33, 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwarzer, C. & Kim, M. J. (1984). Adaptation of the Korean Form of the Test Anxiety Inventory: A research note. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 3, pp. 277 – 285). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  55. Seipp, B. & Schwarzer, C. (1991). Angst und Leistung – Eine Metaanalyse empirischer Befunde. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 5, 85–97.Google Scholar
  56. Seipp, B. & Schwarzer, C. (1996). Cross-cultural anxiety research: A review. In C. Schwarzer & M. Zeidner (Hrsg.), Stress, anxiety, and coping in academic settings (S. 13 – 68). Tübingen: Francke.Google Scholar
  57. Shaha, S. H. (1984). Matching-tests: Reduced anxiety and increased test effectiveness. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44(4), 869–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sharma, S., Parnian, S. & Spielberger, C. D. (1983). A cross-cultural study of test anxiety levels in Iranian and Indian students. Personality and Individual Differences, 4(1), 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sharma, S. & Sud, A. (1990). Examination Stress and Test Anxiety: A cross-cultural perspective. Psychology and Developing Societies, 2(2), 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shweder, R. A. & Sullivan, M. (1990). The semiotic person of cultural psychology. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality (pp. 399–416). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  61. Sipos, K., Sipos, M. & Spielberger (1985). The development and validation of the Hungarian form of the Test Anxiety Inventory. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 4, pp 221–228). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  62. Spielberger, C. D. (1972). Anxiety as an emotional state. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research (pp. 23–49). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  63. Spielberger, C. D. (1980). Test Anxiety Inventory: Preliminary professional manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  64. Spielberger, C. D., Gonzales, H. P., Taylor, C. J., Algaze, B. & Anton, W. D. (1978). Examination stress and test anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 5, pp. 167–191). New York: Hemisphere, Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Spielberger, C. D. & Vagg, P. R. (1995). Test anxiety: Theory, assessment, and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  66. Stary, J. (1994). „Doch nicht durch Worte nur allein“. Die mündliche Prüfung. In Handbuch Hochschullehre (S. 19 – 31). Bonn: Raabe.Google Scholar
  67. Suhr, L. & Döpfner, M. (2000). Leistungs- und Prüfungsängste bei Kindern und Jugendlichen – Ein multimodales Therapiekonzept. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 9, 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Triandis, H. C. (1995a). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  69. Triandis, H. C. (1995b). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. In N. R. Goldberger & J. B. Veroff (Eds.), The culture and psychology reader (pp. 326–365). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Triandis, H. C. (1999). Cross-cultural psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2(1), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Der Ploeg, H. M. (1983). The validation of the Dutch form of Test Anxiety Inventory. In H. M. dervan Ploeg, R. Schwarzer & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 2, pp. 191–202). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  72. Van de Vijver, F. J. R. & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Cross-cultural psychology series. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  73. Van de Vijver, F. J. R. & Leung, K. (2000). Methodological issues in psychological research on culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Verma, S., Sharma, D. & Larson, R. W. (2002). School stress in India: Effects on time and daily emotions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 500–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vishwanathan, R., Shah, M. R. & Ahad, A. (1997). Asian-Indian Americans. In S. Friedman (Ed.), Cultural issues in the treatment of anxiety (pp. 175–195). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Wallbott, H. G. (1996). Überlegungen zu interkulturellen Untersuchungen in der Psychologie – dargestellt an Beispielen aus der Emotionsforschung. In E. H. Witte (Ed.), Sozialpsychologie der Motivation und Emotion (pp. 152–170). Lengerich: Pabst.Google Scholar
  77. Wang, Y. & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). A cross-cultural and developmental analysis of self-esteem in Chinese and Western children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(3), 253–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wine, J. D. (1982). Evaluation anxiety: A cognitive-attentional construct. In H. W. Krohne & L. Laux (Eds.), Achievement, stress, and anxiety (pp. 207–209). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  79. Yao, S., Zou, T., Zhu, X., Abela, J. R. Z., Auerbach, R. P. & Tong, X. (2007). Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children among Chinese secondary school students. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38, 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yue, X. (1994). A comparative study of test anxiety among Chinese and American high school students. Hong Kong Psychological Society Bulletin, 32-33, 47–59.Google Scholar
  81. Zeidner, M. (1995). Adaptive coping with test situations: A review of literature. Educational Psychologist, 30, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  83. Zimmer, J., Hocevar, D., Bachelor, P. & Meinke, D. (1992). An analysis of the Sarason (1984) four-factor conceptualization of test anxiety. In K. A. Hagtvet & T. B. Johnsen (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 7, pp. 103–113). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Differentielle Psychologie & Psychologische DiagnostikGoethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurtDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Psychologie Differentielle Psychologie & Psychologische DiagnostikJohann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurtDeutschland
  3. 3.Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften Schlüsselqualifikationen und KompetenzentwicklungHochschule MerseburgMerseburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations