Advertisement

The Militarization of Gender and Sexuality in the Iraq War

Chapter

Abstract

There is an intimate connection linking gender, sexuality, and war: calls to arms by men to defend women and children, intense camaraderie of men in arms, men’s sustained and vigorous resistance to military service by women and homosexuals, mass rape and sexual servitude in warfare, survival sex by refugees and non-combatants in war zones, sexual commerce surrounding military bases and in’ rest and recreation’ destinations (Mosse 1996; Johnson 2000; Moon 1997; Sturdevant/Stoltzfus 1992; Enloe 1990, 2007). There also are the sexualized depictions of both sides in armed conflicts: from ‘our’ men who are honorable and virile, to ‘their’ men who are perverted and/or impotent; from ‘our’ women who are virtuous and vulnerable, to ‘their’ women who are promiscuous and treacherous (Ducat 2004; Goldstein 2001); and there is the phallic discourse of ‘war talk’: from weaponry — guns, bullets, missiles, and bombs, to military campaigns — assaults, penetration, conquest, and surrender (Cohn 1993; Cooke/Wollacott 1993). Just as there is a military-industrial complex that depends on war for profits and growth, war-making depends on a military-sexual complex to recruit, motivate, and retain military personnel (Hartung 2001; Nagel 1998, 2003).

Keywords

Sexual Assault Sexual Harassment Hegemonic Masculinity Woman Veteran Defense Department 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Agostini, Luis (2005): Women’s Combat Support Role Could End in Iraq. Online: http://www.marines.mi1/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/BEBFFC30B3A4917A85257006005AF8E8?opendocument; accessed 3 March 2006.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, Henderson (2006): Women in Combat: A Culture Issue? Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College. Online: http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/ksil271.pdf; acessed 15 April 2007.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, D.B./ Stevens, Mary L./ Segal, Mady W. (1996): How to Support Families during Overseas Deployments: A Sourcebook for Service Providers. Arlington, VA: US Army Research Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Benedict, Helen (2007): The Private War of Women Soldiers. In: Salon.com, 7 March. Online: http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/03/07/women_in_military/; accessed 3 April 2007.Google Scholar
  5. Bowen, Margaret (2007): Rape and War. In: Miles Foundation, 2 March. Online: http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-minerva&month=0703&week=a&msg=bCuOJfWDXGEERtvDnsFF3g&user=&pw=; accessed 6 March 2007.Google Scholar
  6. Brant, Martha (2005): ‘I Was Shell Shocked’. In: MSNBC.com, 5 July. Online: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8471505/site/newsweek/; accessed 8 July 2005.Google Scholar
  7. Carreiras, Helen (2006). Gender and the Military: Women in the Armed Forces of Western Democracies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Caforio, Giuseppe/ Kümmel, Gerhard (Eds.) (2005). Military Missions and their Implications Reconsidered: The Aftermath of September 11th. Amsterdam et al.: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, Roger (2000): U.S. Sergeant Gets Life in Murder of Kosovo Girl. In: New York Times, 2 August, 3.Google Scholar
  10. Cohn, Carol (1993): Wars, Wimps, and Women: Talking Gender and Thinking War. In: Woollacott, Angela (Eds.): Gendering War Talk. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press Cooke/Woollacott 1993: 227–246.Google Scholar
  11. Connell, Robert W. (2005): Masculinities. 2nd Edition. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cooke, Miriam/ Woollacott, Angela (Eds.) (1993): Gendering War Talk. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Corbett, Sara (2007): The Women’s War. In: The New York Times, 18 March. Online: http://www.newyorktimes.com; accessed 3 April 2007.Google Scholar
  14. Cuordileone, Kyle A. (2005): Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Danner, Mark (2004): Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror. New York: New York Review Books.Google Scholar
  16. De Atkine, Norvell B. (2004): The Arab Mind Revisited. In: The Middle East Quarterly, 11:3, 47–55.Google Scholar
  17. DeGroot, Gerard (2001). A Few Good Women: Gender Stereotypes, the Military, and Peacekeeping. In: International Peacekeeping, 8:2, 23–38.Google Scholar
  18. Douglas, William (2003): A Case of Race? One POW Acclaimed, Another Ignored. In: Seattle Times; 9 November. Online: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2001786800_shoshana09.html; accessed 12 July 2005.Google Scholar
  19. Ducat, Stephen J. (2004): The Wimp Factor: Gender Gaps, Holy Wars, and the Politics of Anxious Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dudink, Stefan/ Hagemann, Karen/ Tosh, John (Eds.) (2004): Masculinities in Politics and War; Gendering Modern History. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Eisenstein, Zillah (2004): Sexual Humiliation, Gender Confusion, and the Horrors at Abu Ghraib. In: PeaceWomen: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Online: http://www.peacewomen.org/news/Iraq/June04/abughraib.html; accessed 1 August 2005.Google Scholar
  22. Enloe, Cynthia (1990). Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Enloe, Cynthia (2007): Globalization and Militarism: Feminists Make the Link. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Enloe, Cynthia (2004a): Taking Women’ seriously’ Makes Us Smarter about the US War in Iraq. Clark Lecture, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 22 September.Google Scholar
  25. Enloe, Cynthia (2004b): Wielding Masculinity Inside Abu Ghraib: Making Feminist Sense of An American Military Scandal. In: Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 10:3, 89–97.Google Scholar
  26. ’Fay, Major General George G./ Jones, Lt. Gen. Anthony R. (2004): Investigation of the Abu Ghraib Prison/Detention Facility and the 205th Military Brigade. US Department of Defense. Online: http://www.4.army.mil/ocpa/reports/ar15-6/Ar15-6.pdf; accessed 14 February 2007.Google Scholar
  27. Feitz, Lindsey (2005): The U.S. Military’s Deployment of Female Sexuality as an Instrument of Torture at Abu Ghraib. Paper presented at the Hall Center for the Humanities, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 3 March.Google Scholar
  28. Follman, Mark/ Clark-Flory, Tracy (2006): Prosecutions and Convictions: A Look at Accountability to Date for Abuses at Abu Ghraib and in the Broader ‘War on Terror’. In: Salon.com, 14 March. Online: http://www.salon.com/news/abu_ghraib/2006/03/14/prosecutions_convictions; accessed 8 March 2007.Google Scholar
  29. Francke, Linda Bird (1997): Ground Zero: The Gender Wars in the US Military. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  30. Gershick, Zsa Zsa (2005): Secret Service: Untold Stories of Lesbians in the Military. New York: Alyson Books.Google Scholar
  31. Ginty, Molly M. (2007): With More Women at War, Military Rethinks Vet Care. In: Women’s E News, 20 March. Online: http://womensenews.org/article.cfm?aid=3103; accessed 3 April 2007.Google Scholar
  32. Giles, Wenona/ Hyndman, Jennifer (Eds.) (2004): Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Giroux, Henry A. (2004): What Education Means After Abu Ghraib: Revisiting Adorno’s Politics of Education. In: Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 24:1, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldstein, Joshua A. (2001): War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Greenberg, Karen/ Dratel, Joshua (2005): The Torture Papers: The Road to Abu Ghaib. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Griffin, Rodman D. (1992): Women in the Military: What Role Should Women Play in the Shrinking Military? In: CQ Researcher, 2:25 September, 835–855.Google Scholar
  37. Grundy, Garry (2003): Three-Fifths of a Heroine. In: The Record (Harvard Law School), 6 November. Online: http://www.hlrecord.org/media/paper609/news/2003/11/06/Opinion/ThreeFifths.Of.A.Heroine-551069.shtml; accessed 3 March 2006.Google Scholar
  38. Halberstam, Judith (1998): Female Masculinity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hartung, William (2001): Eisenhower’s Warning: The Military-Industrial Complex Forty Years Later. In: World Policy Journal, 18:1, 39–44.Google Scholar
  40. Hansen, Christine (2005): A Considerable Sacrifice: The Costs of Sexual Violence in the U.S. Armed Forces. Presented at the Military Culture and Gender Conference, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 16 September, 1–7. Online: http://www.law.buffalo.edu/BALDYCENTER/pdfs/MilCult05Hansen.pdf; accessed 14 April 2007.Google Scholar
  41. Harrell, Margaret C. et al. (2002): The Status of Gender Integration in the Military: Analysis of Selected Occupations. Santa Monica, Cal.: RAND.Google Scholar
  42. Herbert, Melissa S. (1998): Camouflage Isn’t only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in the Military. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Herdy, Amy/ Moffeit, Miles (2003): Betrayal in the Ranks. In: The Denver Post, 16–18 November, Parts I, II, III. Online: http://www.denverpost.com; accessed 12 July 2005.Google Scholar
  44. Hersh, Seymour (2004): The Gray Zone: How a Secret Pentagon Program Came to Abu Ghraib. In: The New Yorker, 24 May, 38–44.Google Scholar
  45. Hesford, Wendy (2006): Staging Terror. In: The Drama Review, 50:3, 29–41.Google Scholar
  46. Hess, Stephen/ Kalb, Marvin (2003): The Media and the War on Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  47. Higate, Paul (2003): Military Masculinities: Identity and the State. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  48. Hooks, Gregory/ Mosher, Clayton (2005): Outrages Against Personal Dignity: Rationalizing Abuse and Torture on the War on Terror. In: Social Forces, 83:4, 1627–1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Houser, Kristen (2007): Analysis and Implications of the Omission of Offenders in the DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report. In: Violence Against Women, 13:9, 961–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howard, John W. III/ Prividera, Laura C. (2004): Rescuing Patriarchy or Saving “Jessica Lynch”. The Rhetorical Construction of the American Woman Soldier. In: Women and Language, 27:2, 89–97.Google Scholar
  51. Iraq Body Count (2007): The Iraq Body Count Database. In: Iraq Body Count. Online: http://www.iraqbodycount.org/; accessed 15 April 2007.Google Scholar
  52. Iraq Coalition Casualties (2007): Female Fatalities. In: Iraq Coalition Casualties. Online: http://icasualties.org/oif/Female.aspx; accessed 3 April 2007).Google Scholar
  53. Jeffries, Sheila (2007): Double Jeopardy: Women, the US Military and the War in Iraq. In: Women Studies International Forum, 30: January, 16–25.Google Scholar
  54. Jervis, Rick (2005): Despite Rule, U.S. Women on Front Line in Iraq War. In: USA Today.com, 27 June. Online: http://www.marines.mi1/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/BEBFFC30B3A4917A85257006005AF8E8?opendocument; accessed 5 July 2005.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, Chalmers (2000): Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  56. Kampfner, John (2003): Saving Private Lynch Story ‘Flawed’. In: BBC News, 15 May. Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/prograrnmes/correspondent/3028585.stm; accessed 3 March 2006.Google Scholar
  57. Karpinski, Janis/ Strasser, Steven (2006): One Woman’s Army: The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story. New York: Miramax Books.Google Scholar
  58. Lewis, Bernard (1974): Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. Vols. I & II. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  59. Mann, Bonnie (2006): How America Justifies Its War: A Modern/Postmodern Aesthetics of Masculinity and Sovereignty. In: Hypatia, 21:4, 147–163.Google Scholar
  60. Manning, Lory (2005): Women in the Military: Where They Stand. 5th Edition. Arlington, VA: Women’s Research and Education Institute.Google Scholar
  61. Martineau, Pamela/ Wiegand, Steve (2005): Women at War. In: Sacramento Bee, 6 March. Online: http://dwb.sacbee.com/content/news/projects/women_at_war/story/12519110p-13374582c.html; accessed 15 April 2007.Google Scholar
  62. Mason, Carol. 2005. The Hillbilly Defense: Culturally Mediating U.S. Terror at Home and Abroad. In: NWSA Journal, 17:3, 39–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Massad, Joseph (2004): Imperial Mementos. In: Al-Ahram Weekly, 20–26 May, 1. Online: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/691/op2.htm; accessed 14 April 2007.Google Scholar
  64. Mazzetti, Mark (2005): General Rejects Call to Penalize Ex-Guantanamo Prison Chief. In: Los Angeles Times, 13 July, A11.Google Scholar
  65. McAlister, Melanie (2003): Saving Private Lynch. In: New York Times, 6 April, 4, 14.Google Scholar
  66. Milisevic, Aleksandra S. (2007): Real Men Don’t Fight: Masculinity, Nationalism and War (Non)Participation. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, Chicago, Il., 6 April.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, Laura/ Moskos, Charles (1995): Humanitarians or Warriors? Race, Gender, and Combat Status in Operation Restore Hope. In: Armed Forces & Society, 21:4, 615–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mitchell, Brian (1989): Weak Link: The Feminization of the American Military. Washington, D.C.: Regnery.Google Scholar
  69. Monsen, Maj. Kathleen P. (1997): Pregnancy in the US Armed Services and its Impact on Readiness. Unpublished Paper, Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.Google Scholar
  70. Moon, Katharine H.S. (1997): Sex among Allies: Military Prostitution in U.S. — Korea Relations. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Mosse, George L. (1996): The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. MSNBC (2007): Ex-POW Lynch has 7-pound, 10-ounce Baby Girl. In: MSNBC.com, 19 January. Online: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16715991; accessed 8 April 2007.Google Scholar
  73. Murdoch, Maureen/ Nichol, Kristin L. (2005): Women Veterans’ Experiences with Domestic Violence and with Sexual Harassment while in the Military. In: Archives of Family Medicine, 4:5. Online: http://archfami.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/5/411; accessed 14 April 2007.Google Scholar
  74. Nagel, Joane (1998): Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations. In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 242–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nagel, Joane (2003): Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Nantais, Cynthia/ Lee, Martha F. (1999): Women in the United States Military: Protectors or Protected? The Case of Prisoner of War Melissa Rathbun-Nealy. In: Journal of Gender Studies, 8:2,181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. New York Times (2005). The Woman of Gitmo. In: New York Times.com, 15 July. Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/15/opinion/15fri1.html; accessed 15 July 2005.Google Scholar
  78. Patai, Raphael (1973): The Arab Mind. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  79. Pin-Fat, Veronique/ Stern, Maria (2005): The Scripting of Private Jessica Lynch: Bio-politics, Gender and the’ Feminization’ of the U.S. Military. In: Alternatives, 30:1,25–53.Google Scholar
  80. Puar, Jasbir (2004): Abu Ghraib: Arguing Against Exceptionalism. In: Feminist Studies, 30:2, 522–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Quester, Aline O./ Gilroy, Curtis, L. (2002): Women and Minorities in America’s Volunteer Army. In: Contemporary Economic Policy, 20:2, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rhem, Kathleen T. (2005): Military Undergoing’ Evolutionary Change’ for Women in Service. In: American Forces Press Services News Articles, 25 January. Online: http://www.defenselink.mil/newsarticle.aspx?id=24249; accessed 3 April 2007.Google Scholar
  83. Rosenthal, Lynn/ McDonald, Susan (2003): Seeking Justice: A Review of the Second Report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence. In: Violence Against Women, 9:9, 1153–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Saar, Erik (2005): Inside the Wire: A Military Intelligence Soldier’s Eyewitness Account of Life at Guantanamo. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sasson-Levy, Orna/ Katz, Sarit Amram (2007): Gender Integration in Israeli Officer Training: Degendering and Regendering the Military. In Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 33, 105–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scarborough, Rowan (2005): Iraq Lacks Women Trained in Security. In: Washington Times, 11 July. Online: http://washingtontimes.com/national/20050711-122346-9856r.htm; accessed 2 December 2005.Google Scholar
  87. Schlesinger, James K. (2004): Final Report of the Independent Panel to Review DOD Detention Operations. US Department of Defense. Online: http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/wp/docs/dod/abughraibrpt.pdf; accessed 14 April 2007.Google Scholar
  88. Segal, David R./ Segal, Mady W. (1993): Peacekeepers and Their Wives: American Participation in the Multinational Force and Observers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  89. Segal, Mady W. (1995): Women’s Military Roles Cross-Nationally: Past, Present, and Future. In: Gender & Society, 9:6, 757–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shaulis, Joe (2006): Guantanamo Bay Detainee’s Face’ systemic’ Abuse: CCR Report. In: Jurist Legal News and Research, 10 July. Online: http://www.jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2006/07/guantanamo-bay-detainees-face.php; accessed 7 April 2007.Google Scholar
  91. Skiba, Katherine M. (2005). Sister in the Band of Brothers: Embedded with the 101st Airborne in Iraq. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  92. Smith, Terence (2003): Saving Private Lynch. In: Online Newshour, 3 June. Online: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/media/jan-june03/lynch_06-10.html; accessed 20 July 2005).Google Scholar
  93. Solaro, Erin (2006): Women in the Line of Fire: What You Should Know about Women in the Military. Emeryville, Cal.: Seal Press.Google Scholar
  94. Stiehm, Judith H. (1982): The Protected, the Protector, and the Defender. In: Women’s Studies International Forum, 5:3/4, 367–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stiehm, Judith H. (1989): Arms and the Enlisted Woman. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Stiehm, Judith H. (1996): It’s Our Military Too! Women in the U.S. Military. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Strasser, Steven (2004): The Abu Ghraib Investigations: The Official Independent Panel and Pentagon Reports on the Shocking Prisoner Abuse in Iraq. New York: Public Affairs Books.Google Scholar
  98. Sturdevant, Saundra Pollock/ Stoltzfus, Brenda (1992): Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  99. Taguba, Antonio M. (2004): Article 15–6 Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade. US Department of Defense. Online: http://www.npr.org/iraq/2004/prison_abuse_report.pdf; accessed 14 April 2007.Google Scholar
  100. Tetrault, Mary Ann (2006): The Sexual Politics of Abu Ghraib: Hegemony, Spectacle, and the Global War on Terror. In: NWSA Journal, 18:3, 33–50.Google Scholar
  101. Tessier, Marie (2003): Sexual Assault Pervasive in Military, Experts Say. In: Women’s E-News, 30 March. Online: http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm?aid=1273; accessed 2 December 2005.Google Scholar
  102. Tosh, John (2004): Hegemonic Masculinity and the History of Gender. In: Hagemann, Karen/ Tosh, John (Eds.) Masculinities in Politics and War; Gendering Modern History. Manchester: Manchester University Press Dudink/Hagemann/Tosh 2004: 41–58.Google Scholar
  103. Tucker, Bruce/ Walton, Priscilla L. (2006): From General’s Daughter to Coal Miner’s Daughter: Spinning and Counter-Spinning Jessica Lynch. In: Canadian Review of American Studies, 36:3, 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. US Army (2003): Attack on the 507th Maintenance Company, 23 March 2003, in Nasiriyah, Iraq. Online: http://www.army.mil/features/507thMaintCmpy/AttackOnThe507MaintCmpy.pdf; accessed 15 April 2007.Google Scholar
  105. US Army (2005): Army Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program. Online: http://www.sexualassault.army.mil/; accessed 22 July 2005.Google Scholar
  106. US Department of Defense (2002): Population Representation in the Military Services. Online: http://www.dod.mil/prhome/poprep2002/index.htm; accessed 12 January 2006.Google Scholar
  107. US Department of Defense (2003): Defense Task Force Report on Domestic Violence. Online: http://www.dtic.mi1/domesticviolence/reports/DV_RPT3.PDF; accessed 12 January 2006.Google Scholar
  108. US Department of Defense (2004a): Active Duty Military Personnel by Rank/Grade (30 September). Online: http://webl.whs.osd.mil/mmid/military/rg0409f.pdf; accessed 12 January 2006.Google Scholar
  109. US Department of Defense (2004b): Task Force Report on Sexual Assault Policies. Online: http://www.asamra.army.mil/eo/eo_docs/Army%20Report%20(May%2027%202004).pdf; accessed 12 January 2006.Google Scholar
  110. US Department of Defense (2005a): Statistics on Women in the Military: Women Serving Today. Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation. Online: http://www.womensmemorial.org/Press/stats.html; accessed 2 August 2005.Google Scholar
  111. US Department of Defense (2005b): Confidentiality Policy for Victims of Sexual Assault (31 March). Online: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Mar2005/d20050318dsd.pdf; accessed 12 January 2006.Google Scholar
  112. US Department of Defense (2005c): Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies (June). Online: http://www.dtic.mil/dtfs/; accessed 4 March 2006.Google Scholar
  113. US Department of Defense (2006): Sexual Offences Involving Members of the U.S. Armed Forces, 2005 (14 March). Online: http://www.sapr.mil/contents/references/2005%20RTC%20Sexual%20Assaults.pdf; accessed 8 April 2006.Google Scholar
  114. Weisskopf, Michael (2006): Blood Brothers: Among the Soldiers of Ward 57. New York: Henry Holt & Company.Google Scholar
  115. White, Josh (2005): Abu Ghraib Tactics Were First Used at Guantanamo. In: Washington Post, 14 July, A1.Google Scholar
  116. White, Josh/ Davenport, Christian/ Higham, Scott (2004): The New Videos: Video Images Amplify Violence. In: Washington Post, 21 May. Online: http://www. washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43785-2004May20.html; accessed 8 August 2005.Google Scholar
  117. Williams, Kayla/ Staub, Michael E. (2005): Love My Rifle More Than You: Young and Female in the U.S. Army. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  118. Wilson, Capt. Barbara A. (1996ff): Military Women Pilots. Online: http://userpages.aug.com/captbarb/pilots.html; accessed 21 July 2005.Google Scholar
  119. Zimbardo, Philip (2007): The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften | GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.American Studies ProgramUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.University of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations