Socio-economic contexts of self-employment
To understand the self-employment activities of women and minorities in Europe we have to take context variables into consideration. Economic activity and unemployment reveal that, for both groups, considerable barriers make entering the labor market difficult. Women are hindered from entering the labor market by specific gender role constructions; in particular care and motherhood (actual or anticipated and normatively expected as an institutional pattern of the life course) confine them to the domestic sphere. In recent decades, a trend has developed whereby a market increase in the proportion of women remaining in the labor market after becoming mothers can be confirmed, however, national differences still persist. In France and the Nordic countries there is a high and continuous rate of female labor market participation throughout the life cycle, In the UK and in Germany, motherhood precipitates a labor market exit and subsequent re-entry, in many cases on a part-time basis.
KeywordsEntrepreneurial Activity Native Woman Unemployed Person Woman Entrepreneur Ethnic Business
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