Advertisement

Interessenverbände und Zivilgesellschaft in den baltischen Staaten

  • Tove Lindén
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

In vielen westlichen Demokratien gilt eine aktive Zivilgesellschaft als Grundstein für eine lebendige, partizipative, liberale Demokratie (Tocqueville 1969; Putnam 1993; Lijphart1999). Gleichzeitig konnte zum Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts sowohl in vielen postindustriellen als auch in den meisten postkommunistischen Staaten eine stetige Abnahme des Engagements in traditionellen zivilgesellschaftlichen Organisationen beobachtet werden. Der Grad zivilgesellschaftlicher Beteiligung ist insbesondere in den ehemaligen Sowjetrepubliken auch heute noch sehr gering (Norris 2002, S. 188 f.; Zepa 1999, S. 11). Dies liegt nicht nur am fehlenden Interesse der Regierenden, sondern auch am Desinteresse der breiten Bevölkerung an zivilgesellschaftlichem Engagement (Howard 2002, S. 165 f.).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literartur

  1. Avis, George. 1990a. Preface. In ders.: The Making of the Soviet Citizen. Kent: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Avis, George. 1990b. Student Response to Communist Upbringing in Soviet Higher Education. In ders.: The Making of the Soviet Citizen, 212–235. Kent: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. BTI. 2010. Bertelsmann Transformation Index 2010 – Latvia Country Report. Zugegriffen: 28. 11. 2010.Google Scholar
  4. Civic Alliance – Latvia. 2010. Internetpräsenz. http://www.nvo.lv/recourse.php?lang=en&id=568, Zugegriffen: 29. 11. 2010.
  5. Dellenbrant, Jan Åke. 1994. The Re-emergence of Multi-partyism in the Baltic States. In The New Democracies in Eastern Europe – Party Systems and Political Cleavages, Hrsg. Sten Berglund und Jan Åke Dellenbrant, 74–116. Aldershot: Elgar.Google Scholar
  6. Försvarsmuseet. 2008. Nyckeln till Norrlands lås. Del. 4. Världen står i brand. http://www.forsvarsmuseum.se/skolmat/del_4_andrav%C3%A4rldskriget_txt.pdf. Zugegriffen: 16. 12. 2010.
  7. Frisby, Tanya. 1989. Soviet Youth Culture. In Soviet Youth Culture, Hrsg. Jim Riordan, 1–15. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Gassmann, Franziska. 1998. Who and Where are the Poor in Latvia? Paper contributing to the Latvian UNDP project „Support to Development of a National Poverty Eradication Strategy“, Rīga: Ministry of Welfare and UNDP.Google Scholar
  9. Gerner, Kristian und Stefan Hedlund. 1993. The Baltic States and the End of the Soviet Empire. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Hill, Ronald J. und Peter Frank. 1986. The Soviet Communist Party. Boston: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  11. Howard, Marc Morjé. 2002. The Weakness of Post-communist Civil Society. Journal of Democracy13/1: 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ignats, Ülo. 1992. Den stora omvälvningen i Baltikum. Stockholm: Föreningen Östeuropainformation.Google Scholar
  13. Juknevičius, Stanislovas und Aida Savicka. 2003. From Restitution to Innovation: Volunteering in Post-Communist Countries. In The Values of Volunteering. Cross-Cultural Perspectives, Hrsg. Paul Dekker und Loek Halman, 127–142. New York/Boston: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kassof, Allen. 1965. The Soviet Youth Program: Regimentation and Rebellion. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Katz, Katarina. 2001. Gender, Work and Wages in the Soviet Union: A Legacy of Discrimination Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Latvia’s Central Statistical Bureau. 2001. Statistical Yearbook of Latvia: Latvia.Google Scholar
  17. Levits, Egil. 1987. National Elites and Their Political Function Within the Soviet System: The Latvian Elite. Journal of Baltic Studies 18/2: 176–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lieven, Anatol. 1993. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government forms and Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lindén, Tove. 1997. Estland, Lettland och Litauen – partisystemets omvandling 1990 – 1996. Course Paper at the Department of Political Science. Sweden: Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  21. Lindén, Tove. 2001. Kulturmöten – erfarenheter från samarbetsprojekt mellan organisationer i Sverige och Estland, Lettland respektive Litauen. Internal office report for Forum Syd. Stockholm: Forum Syd.Google Scholar
  22. Lindén, Tove. 2008. Explaining Civil Society Core Activism in Post-Soviet Latvia. Doctoral Thesis in Political Science at Stockholm University, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  23. Nations Encyclopedia. 1989. Soviet Union; Social Organizations; Trade Unions, based on the Country Studies Series by Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12547.html. Zugegriffen: 31. 1. 2008.
  24. Noorgard, Ole, Lars Johannsen und Anette Pedersen. 1994. The Baltic Republics Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: The Development of Multi-Party Systems. In Political Parties of Eastern Europe, Russia and the Successor States, Hrsg. Bogdan Szajkowski, 47–65. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  25. Norkus, Zenonas. 2007. Why Did Estonia Perform Best ? The North-South Gap in the Post- Socialist Economic Transition of the Baltic States. Journal of Baltic Studies 38/1: 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Norris, Pippa. 2002. Democratic Phoenix. Reinventing Political Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orr, Scott D. Identities and NGOs in Eastern Europe. Work in progress. (im Erscheinen).Google Scholar
  28. Pabriks, Artis und Aldis Purs. 2001. Latvia – the challenges of change. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Den fungerande demokratin. Medborgarandans rötter i Italien.Stockholm: SNS Förlag.Google Scholar
  30. Rīga NGO Center. 2000/01. NGO Sector in Latvia, Report. Rīga: Rīga NGO Center.Google Scholar
  31. Rīga NGO Center. 2002. NGO Sector in Latvia 2000/01. Rīga: Rīga NGO Center.Google Scholar
  32. Riordan, Jim. 1989. The Role of Youth Organizations in Communist Upbringing in the Soviet School. In ders.: Soviet Youth Culture, 136–160. Basingstoke/London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Ruutsoo, Rein. 2002. Civil Society and Nation Building in Estonia and the Baltic States – Impact of traditions on mobilisation and transition 1986 – 2000. A historical and sociological study. Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis. Rovaniemi: Lapin yliopisto.Google Scholar
  34. Sperling, Valerie. 1999. Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia Engendering Transition.Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Steen, Anton. 1997. Between Past and Future: Elites, Democracy and the State in Post-Communist Countries. A Comparison of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  36. Sutherland, Jeanne. 1999. Schooling in the New Russia. Innovation and Change, 1984 – 95. Basingstoke et al.: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1969. Democracy in America. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  38. UNDP. 1996. Latvia. Human Development Report, Rīga: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  39. UNDP. 1997. Latvia. Human Development Report, Rīga: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  40. UNDP. 2009. Latvia. Human Development Report, Rīga: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  41. USAID. 2009. The 2009 NGO Sustainability Index. http://www.usaid.gov/locations/europe_eurasia/ dem_gov/ngoindex/2009/Latvia.pdf. Zugegriffen: 29. 1. 2010.
  42. Vardys, Stanley und Judith Sedaitis. 1997. Lithuania: The Rebel Nation. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  43. Zepa, Brigita. 1999. Civic Participation in Latvia. In dies.: Conditions of Enhancement of Civic Participation. Academic Research Report, 3–36. Rīga: Baltic Data House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tove Lindén
    • 1
  1. 1.Bildungsinstituts in SchwedenDeutchlandSchweden

Personalised recommendations