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Multikulturalität

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Zusammenfassung

Amerikanische Literatur beginnt mit den verbalen Ausdrucksformen der ersten Amerikaner. Was wir heute als ›indianische Literatur‹ (American Indian literature, Native American literature) bezeichnen, umfaßt sowohl die seit dem 18. Jh. von Indianern in englischer Sprache schriftlich verfaßte Literatur als auch die bis heute mündlich überlieferten Traditionen der indigenen Stammeskulturen in Nordamerika. Die Bestimmung des ›Indianischen‹ in der indianischen Literatur ist zudem untrennbar verbunden mit der Definition des ›Indianischen‹ in der amerikanischen Kultur. Denn seit dem ersten europäisch-amerikanischen Kulturkontakt lag dessen Benennung und Bestimmung in europäischen Händen. Was als indianisch gilt, ist damit letztendlich ein Produkt euro-amerikanischer Politik und Gesetzgebung, Kunst, Literatur und Populärkultur und reflektiert weder die Diversität und Heterogenität der mehr als dreihundert noch existierenden Stammeskulturen noch die Existenz gemischtrassiger mixedblood-Identitäten. Die Definition der indianischen Literatur als der von Indianern produzierten Literatur basiert deshalb notwendigerweise auf oft zweifelhaften biographischen Kriterien (wann ist ein/e Autor/in indianisch?) und impliziert die Erwartung, daß diese Literatur indianische Themen behandelt. Indianische Autoren laufen damit immer Gefahr, auf anthropologische und historische Authentizität reduziert und festgelegt zu werden.

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