Skip to main content

External CPAP: Cleaning Procedures

  • 3987 Accesses

Abstract

For patients on respirator, infection control is extremely important to prevent serious lower tract infections. All equipment’s inner parts, connected directly or indirectly to airways, should be sterile to prevent lower respiratory tract infection. A CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure) will always be an “extended lung” when connected to the patient’s airways. The inner parts of CPAP may be strongly contaminated during use by patients. There may be a huge growth of bacteria and fungi in biofilms and secrets in wet areas in the inner part of the CPAP.

Keywords

  • CPAP
  • Continuous positive airway pressure
  • Intensive treatment
  • Respiratory infections
  • Pneumonia
  • Infection prevention
  • Sterile procedures
  • Hygiene
  • Infection control

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-99921-0_32
  • Chapter length: 9 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-99921-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 32.1

References

  1. Strausbaugh LJ. Nosocomial respiratory infections. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennest’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005. p. 3362–70.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Donowitz GR, Mandell GL. Acute pneumonia. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennest’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005. p. 819–45.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Craven DE, Chroneou A. Nosocomial pneumonia. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennet’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, vol. vol. 2. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2010. p. 3717–38.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Hovig B, Lystad A, Opsjøn H. A prevalence study of infection among hospitalized patients in Norway. NIPH Ann. 1981;4:49–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Lystad A, Stormark M. Hospital infections in Norwegian somatic hospitals. MSIS; Week 15. 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Lystad A, Stormark M. Report on prevalence studies of hospital infections in Norwegian hospitals on April 25, 1991. MSIS; Week 29. 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Andersen BM. Hospital infections at Ullevål University Hospital. Occurrence and additional expenses. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1996;116:2903–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Andersen BM, Hannestad Ree M, Hermansen W, Holta Ringertz S, Høystad MW, Lelek M, Norman BI, Næs B, Petersen T, Anderson Rød K, Røed RTH, Solheim N, Tandberg S, Bjørklund U, Skoog Hansen K. Number of hospital infections decreased last year. Tidsskr Sykepleien. 1998;2:52–4.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Andersen BM, Rasch M. Prevention of nosocomial, flu-like lower respiratory tract infection in a nursing home. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999;9:1336.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Scheel O, Stormark M. National prevalence survey on hospital infections in Norway. J Hosp Infect. 1999;412:331–5.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Andersen BM, Holta Ringertz SH, Petersen Gullord T, Hermansen W, Lelek M, Norman BI, Tilrem Nystad M, Anderson Rød K, Røed RTH, Smidesang IJ, Solheim N, Tandberg S, Halsnes R, Høystad MW. A three-year survey of nosocomial and community-acquired infections, antibiotic treatment and re-hospitalization in a Norwegian health region. J Hosp Infect. 2000;44:214–23.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Andersen BM, Rasch M. Hospital-acquired infections in Norwegian long-term-care institutions. A three-year survey of hospital-acquired infection and antibiotic treatment in nursing/residential homes, including 4,500 residents in Oslo. J Hosp Infect. 2000;46:288–98.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Andersen BM, Rasch M, Tollefsen T, Kvist J, Bentsen L. Point prevalence studies during 10 years; − study of nosocomial infections in a tertiary university hospital in Norway. J Hosp Infect. 2006;64(Suppl 1):70. Abstract

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Andersen BM, Rasch M, Hochlin K, Tollefsen T, Sandvik L. Hospital-acquired Infections before and after healthcare reorganization in a tertiary University Hospital in Norway. J Public Health. 2009;7:1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  15. NIPH. Prevalence of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic treatment (PIAH) –springtime. 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, et al. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in university hospitals. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121:182–205.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial Infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:128–40.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Craven DE, Steger KA. Hospital-acquired pneumonia: perspectives for the healthcare epidemiologists. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18:783–95.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Tablan OC, Anderson LI, Besser R, Bridges C, Hajjeh R. Guidelines for preventing healthcare associated pneumonia 2003 CDC. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:1–36.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck M. CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of healthcare-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infection in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36:309–32.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Andersen BM. Prevention of respiratory infections. I: handbook in hygiene and infection control for hospitals. Oslo: Ullevål University Hospital; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Branch-Elliman W, Price CS, McGeer A, Perl TM. Protecting the front line: designing and infection prevention platform for preventing emerging respiratory viral illness in healthcare personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;00:1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Andersen BM, Hochlin K, Daling JP. Cleaning and decontamination of reusable medical equipment, including the use of hydrogen peroxide dry-mist gas decontamination. J Microbiol Biochem Technol. 2012;4:57–62.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, et al. Developing anew, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:1742–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Crossley KB, Peterson PK. Infections in the elderly. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennet’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, vol. 2. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2010. p. 3857–64.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Andersen BM, Rasch M. Nosocomial infections in nursing homes in Oslo. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen. 2002;122:2371–3.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Marrie TJ. Pneumonia in the long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:159–64.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Hutt E, Kramer AM. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of nursing home-acquired pneumonia. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:709–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Sund-Levander M, Ortqvist A, Grodzinsky E, Klefsgard O, Wahren LK. Morbidity, mortality and clinical presentation of nursing home-acquired pneumonia in a Swedish population. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:306–10.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Janssens JP, Krause KH. Pneumonia in the very old. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:112–24.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Hollar VRY, van der Putten G-J, van der Maarel-Wierink CD, et al. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia, dysphagia and associated diseases in nursing home residents: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Geriatr Nurs. 2017;38(5):437–41.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. CDC. Pneumonia hospitalizations among young children before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine—United States, 1997–2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Humphreys H, Newcombe RG, Enstone J, et al. Four county healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections. J Hosp Infect. 2010;74:266–70.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. American Thoracic Society documents. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:388–416.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Klompas M. Nosocomial pneumonia. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennet’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, vol. Vol. 2. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015. p. 3325–33.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Klompas M, Khan Y, Kleinman K, et al. Multicentre evaluation of a novel surveillance paradigm for complications of mechanical ventilation. PLoS One. 2011;6:e18062.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Klompas M, Branson R, Eichenwald EC, et al. Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute care hospitals: 2014 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:915–36.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. CDC. Ventilator-associated event (VAE). Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S, et al. Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(Suppl):1–24.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:27–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Cunha BA. Nosocomial pneumonia. emedicine.medscape.com. 2009.

  42. CDC. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:1–79.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Herer B, Fuhrman C, Gazevic Z, Cabrit R, Chouaid C. Management of nosocomial pneumonia on a medical ward: a comparative study of outcomes and costs of invasive procedures. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:165–72.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Anevlavis S, Petroglou N, Tzavaras A, et al. A prospective study of the diagnostic utility of sputum Gram stain in pneumonia. J Infect. 2009;59:83–9.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Musher DM, Roig IL, Cazares G, Stager CE, Logan N, Safar H. Can an etiologic agent be identified in adults who are hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: results of a one-year study. J Infect. 2013;67:11–8.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Digranes A. Antibiotic sensitivity of common airway pathogenic bacteria. ThM. 1997:17–97.

    Google Scholar 

  47. NORM-VET. Usage of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Norway. Troms ø/Oslo in 2011, 2012, 2013. 2016.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Andersen, B.M. (2019). External CPAP: Cleaning Procedures. In: Prevention and Control of Infections in Hospitals. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99921-0_32

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99921-0_32

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-99920-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-99921-0

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)