Nocturnal Paradox: How Breakdancing Reveals the Potentials of the Night
This chapter is an exploration into how breakdancing (“breaking”) can be a vehicle for understanding the inherent tensions and dualities of the night, or what I term the “nocturnal paradox”. It moves beyond hegemonic discourses and regulations of night-time culture that are increasingly focused on its economic valorization to show how breaking—an activity in Sydney (Australia) that exists outside economic transactions—can offer a means to experience and navigate the nocturnal city in new ways. At a time when the strict regulation of lockout laws has spurred a slow decline in the economic-viability of nocturnal cultural activities in Sydney, breakers utilize the empty urban landscape to freely experiment with creative expression. This chapter moves beyond the often-limited and paradoxical framings of night-time culture to show how breaking reveals the potentials of the night.
- Banes, Sally. 1994. Writing Dancing in the Age of Postmodernism. Hanover: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
- Chang, Jeff. 2007. Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. Reading, Berkshire: Ebury Press.Google Scholar
- Desmond, Jane. 1997. Embodying Difference: Issues in Dance and Cultural Studies. In Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance, ed. Jane Desmond, 29–54. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Ehrenreich, Barbara. 2007. Dancing in the Streets: A History of Collective Joy. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
- Ferrell, Jeff. 1996. Crimes of Style: Urban Graffiti and the Politics of Criminality. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
- Florida, Richard. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Forman, Murray. 2002. The ’Hood Comes First: Race, Space, and Place in Rap and Hip-Hop. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Frith, Simon. 1983. Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock. London: Constable.Google Scholar
- Gunn, Rachael. 2014. Breaking Down Dominant Conceptualisations of Place: The Transgressive Potential in ‘143 Liverpool Street Familia’s’ Engagement with the ‘Downing Centre Courts’. In Communities, Places, Ecologies: Proceedings of the 2013 IASPM-ANZ Conference, ed. Jadey O’Regan and Toby Wren, 84–95. Brisbane, QLD: International Association for the Study of Popular Music.Google Scholar
- ———. 2016. The ‘Systems of Relay’ in Doing Cultural Studies: Experimenting with the ‘Body without Organs’ in B-Girling Practice. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Situating Research, Situating Practice: New Voices in Cultural Research 30 (2): 183–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2016.1143194.
- Hadfield, Phil. 2015. The Night-Time City—Four Modes of Exclusion: Reflections on the Urban Studies Special Collection. Urban Studies 52 (3): 606–616. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014552934.
- Homan, Shane. 2017. ‘Lockout’ Laws or ‘Rock Out’ Laws? Governing Sydney’s Night-Time Economy and Implications for the ‘Music City’. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2017.1317760.
- Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth, and Alexander Shou Weedon-Newstead. 2017. Investigating Displacement Effects as a Result of the Sydney, NSW Alcohol Lockout Legislation. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2017.1306023.
- Maxwell, Ian. 2003. Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin’ Upper. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, Tony. 2011. Indigenising Hip Hop: An Australian Migrant Youth Subculture. In Ingenious: Emerging Youth Cultures in Urban Australia, ed. Melissa Butcher and Mandy Thomas, 198–214. North Melbourne: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
- Rojek, Chris. 2010. The Labour of Leisure: The Culture of Free Time. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Shaw, Robert. 2015. Alive After Five: Constructing the Neoliberal Night in Newcastle upon Tyne. Urban Studies 52 (3): 456–470.Google Scholar
- Weber, Max. 1971. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Talcott Parsons. London: Unwin University Books.Google Scholar