Thermal Energy Storage of Composite Materials Based on Clay, Stearic Acid, Paraffin and Glauber’s Salt as Phase Change Materials

  • Milena StojiljkovicEmail author
  • Stanisa Stojiljkovic
  • Bratislav Todorovic
  • Mirjana Reljic
  • Sasa Savić
  • Sanja Petrovic
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 54)


Thermal protection and insulation are important problems in many fields such as industry, agriculture and medicine. New composite materials with good thermal storage capacities have become important in the last few decades. The role of these materials is reflected in their ability to store energy and allow it to be reused in some other thermal systems. The aim of this study was to create a new material based on the basically activated bentonite clay. First, the clay was basically activated, resulting in a thick gel. Afterwards, stearic acid, Glauber’s salt and active carbon were added, and a heterogeneous gel was obtained as a finished final product. In order to obtain the best heterogeneous gel with satisfactory storage properties, the amount of stearic acid and Glauber’s salt was varied. The characterization of the resulting heterogeneous gel was performed by measuring the cooling rate of the gel samples. Compared with stearic acid, Glauber’s proved to be more effective. Heterogeneous gel cooling tests have shown that there was a certain proportional dependence between the concentration of stearic acid and the Glauber salt. However, it has been noticed the reduction in the cooling rate. Namely, the increase in stearic acid and Glauber’s salt concentration lead to slowing down the cooling rate of the gel. Adding active carbon to the heterogeneous gel also reduced the cooling rate, which indicated that the presence of active carbon in the heterogeneous gel should not be excluded in the future. The advantage of this system is the improvement of the gel thermal characteristics by the presence of water and clay. The gel was reversibly cooled and heated up to 100 °C without changing the homogeneous structure. This system can be used as a heat recovery pad, due to its flexible body pillow. It can be very quickly warmed up in a microwave oven if it is packaged in polyethylene packaging.


Thermal storage Bentonite clay Glauber’s salt Paraffin Stearic acid Activated carbon 


  1. 1.
    Stojiljković, S.T., Todorović, B.Ž.: The adsorption-desorption power of bentonite based materials. LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken (2016)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sadek, O.M., Mekhemer, W.K.: Na-montmorillonite clay as thermal energy storage material. Thermochim. Acta 370, 57–63 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stojiljković, S., Savić, I., Mitković, P., Vasić, L., Marinković, A.: An urban planning approach to the climatization of space using natural resources based on ceramic clay, zeolite and bentonite clay. Sci. Sinter. 46(2), 259–268 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Kayiem, H.H., Lin, S.C., Lukmon, A.: Review on nanomaterials for thermal energy storage technologies. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Asia 3, 60–71 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wuttig, M., Steimer, C.: Phase change materials: from material science to novel storage devices. Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 87(3), 411–417 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stojiljkovic, S., Miljkovic, V., Nikolic, G., Kostic, D., Arsic, B., Barber, J., Savic, I., Savic, I.: The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions. Sci. Sinter. 46(1), 65–73.44 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cao, L.: Properties evaluation and applications of thermal energy storage materials in buildings. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 48, 500–522 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Todorović, B.Ž., Stojiljković, S.T., Stojiljković, D.T., Petrović, S.M., Takić Lj, M., Stojiljković, M.S.: Removal of As3+ cations from water by activated carbon, bentonite and zeolite in a batch system at different pH. J. Elementol. 22(2), 713–723 (2017)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stojiljkovic, S.: Role of bentonite clay in the ecology of the human body. In: XIV International Conference on Medical Geology (GEOMED), pp. 20–25 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Veniale, F.: The role of microfabric in clay soil stability. Mineral. Petrogr. Acta 29, 101–119 (1985)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen, Z., Shan, F., Cao, L., Fang, G.Y.: Synthesis and thermal properties of shape stabilized lauric acid/activated carbon composites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 102, 131–136 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamdan, M.A., Al-Hinti, I.: Analysis of heat transfer during the melting of a phase-change material. Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(13), 1935–1944 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li, Z.B.: Paraffin/diatomite/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite phase change material tailormade for thermal energy storage cement-based composites. Energy 72, 371–380 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prekajski, M., Mirković, M., Todorović, B., Matković, A., Marinović-Cincović, M., Luković, J., Matović, B.: Ouzo effect – new simple nanoemulsion method for synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite nanospheres. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(5), 1293–1298 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mondal, S.: Phase change materials for smart textiles – an overview. Appl. Therm. Eng. 28, 1536–1550 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nikolić, L., Ristić, I., Stojiljković, S., Vuković, Z., Stojiljković, D., Nikolić, V., Budinski-Simendić, J.: The influence of montmorillonite modification on the properties of composite material based on poly(methacrylic acid). J. Compos. Mater. 46, 921–928 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, S.X., Li, Y., Hu, J.Y., Tokura, H., Song, Q.W.: Effect of phase change material on energy consumption of intelligent thermal protective clothing. Polym. Test. 25(5), 580587 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, Y.: The science of clothing comfort. Text. Prog. 31, 1–135 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shukla, N., Fallahi, A., Kosny, J.: Performance characterization of PCM impregnated gypsum board for building applications. Energy Procedia 30, 370–379 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iten, M., Liu, S., Shukla, A.: Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 61, 175–186 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sari, A.: Thermal energy storage characteristics of bentonite-based composite PCMs with enhanced thermal conductivity as novel thermal storage building materials. Energy Convers. Manag. 117, 132141 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma, A., Tyagi, V.V., Chen, C.R., Buddhi, D.: Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13(2), 318–345 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maciej, J., Shady, A.: Thermal conductivity of gypsum with incorporated phase change material (PCM) for building applications. J. Power Technol. 91(2), 49–53 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zastawna-Rumin, A.: Phase change materials vs. internal temperature in a building. Techn. Trans. 111(8-A), 207–213 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pan, L., Tao, Q., Zhang, S., Wang, S., Zhang, J., Wang, S., Wang, Z., Zhang, Z.: Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated phase change materials. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 6670 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marín, J.M., Zalba, B., Cabeza, L.F., Mehling, H.: Improvement of a thermal energy storage using plates with paraffin–graphite composite. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48, 2561–2570 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karaipekli, A., Sarı, A., Kaygusuz, K.: Thermal conductivity improvement of stearic acid using expanded graphite and carbon fiber for energy storage applications. Renew Eng. 32, 2201–2210 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Memon, S.A., Cui, H.Z., Zhang, H., Xing, F.: Appl. Energy 139, 43–55 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cabeza, L.F., Barreneche, C., Martorell, I., Miró, L., Sari-Bey, Fois S.M., Paksoy, H.O., Sahan, N., Weber, R., Constantinescu, M., Anghel, E.M., Malikova, M., Krupa, I., Delgado, M., Dolado, P., Furmanski, P., Jaworski, M., Haussmann, T., Gschwander, S., Fernández, A.I.: Unconventional experimental technologies available for phase change materials (PCM) characterization. Part 1. Thermophysical properties. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 43, 1399–1414 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gschwander, S.: Standardization of PCM characterization via DSC. In: The 13th international Conference on Energy Storage, Greenstock, Beijing (2015)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Garcia, A., Cabeza, L.F.: Phase change materials and thermal energy storage for buildings. Energy Build. 104, 414–419 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stojiljkovic, S., Miljkovic, V., Nikolic, G., Kostic, D., Arsic, B., Barber, J., Savic, I.: The influence of the addition of polymers on the physico-chemical properties of bentonite suspensions. Sci. Sinter. 46(1), 65–73 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soares, N.M.L.: (2016) Thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for the improvement of the energy performance of buildings. Tese de doutoramento, Coimbra. Disponível na. www:
  34. 34.
    Lamberg, P.: Approximate analytical model for two phase solidification problem in a finned phase-change-material storage. Appl. Energy 77, 131–152 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li, B.X., Liu, T.X., Hu, L.Y., Wang, Y.F., Nie, S.B.: Facile preparation and adjustable thermal property of stearic acid–graphene oxide composite as shapestabilized phase change material. Chem. Eng. J. 215, 819–826 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stojiljković, S., Savić, I., Mitković, P., Vasić, L., Marinković, A.: An urban planning approach to the climatization of space using natural resources based on ceramic clay, zeolite and bentonite clay. Sci. Sinter. 46(2), 259–268 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milena Stojiljkovic
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stanisa Stojiljkovic
    • 1
  • Bratislav Todorovic
    • 1
  • Mirjana Reljic
    • 2
  • Sasa Savić
    • 1
  • Sanja Petrovic
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of NisLeskovacSerbia
  2. 2.CIS InstituteBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations