Advertisement

Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Homogenization Across US National Parks: The Role of Non-native Species

  • Daijiang Li
  • Julie L. Lockwood
  • Benjamin Baiser
Chapter
Part of the Ecology and Ethics book series (ECET, volume 3)

Abstract

US national parks are firmly engrained into the culture of the country. Since the first national park was established in 1872, these protected areas have been central to biodiversity conservation, education, and recreation in the United States. However, national parks face many of the same threats to biodiversity as non-protected areas, including non-native species invasion. As invasive species spread and replace native species across national parks, the composition, function, and evolutionary history of these ecological communities continue to change. To better understand the impact of non-native species on ecological communities in US national parks, we compared species composition for bird and plant assemblages in 244 and 241 national park units, respectively, with and without non-native species. We specifically ask if the establishment of non-native species has resulted in taxonomic and phylogenetic homogenization across national parks. We show that the establishment of non-native plants in US national parks has resulted in both taxonomic and phylogenetic homogenization. However, the establishment of non-native birds has led to phylogenetic differentiation in spite of taxonomic homogenization, indicating that taxonomic and phylogenetic homogenization are decoupled. As the uniqueness of regional floras and faunas is lost through the process of homogenization, not only is biodiversity lost but so are cultural resources and values that define the United States.

Keywords

Beta diversity Birds National parks Phylogenetic diversity Plants Species invasions 

References

  1. Abella SR (2014) Impacts and management of hemlock woolly adelgid in national parks of the eastern United States. Southeast Nat 13:16–45Google Scholar
  2. Allen JA, Brown CS, Stohlgren TJ (2009) Non-native plant invasions of United States national parks. Biol Invasions 11:2195–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baiser B, Lockwood JL (2011) The relationship between functional and taxonomic homogenization. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baiser B, Olden JD, Record S et al (2012) Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the new pangaea. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 279:4772–4777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baiser B, Whitaker N, Ellison AM (2013) Modeling foundation species in food webs. Ecosphere 4:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baiser B, Valle D, Zelazny Z, Burleigh JG (2018) Non-random patterns of invasion and extinction reduce phylogenetic diversity in island bird assemblages. Ecography 41: 361–374Google Scholar
  7. Blackburn TM, Cassey P, Lockwood JL (2009) The role of species traits in the establishment success of exotic birds. Glob Chang Biol 15:2852–2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byerly A (1996) The uses of landscape: the picturesque aesthetic and the national park system. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary EcologyGoogle Scholar
  9. Cadotte MW, Murray BR, Lovett-Doust J (2006) Ecological patterns and biological invasions: using regional species inventories in macroecology. Biol Invasions 8:809–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chace JF, Walsh JJ (2006) Urban effects on native avifauna: a review. Landsc Urban Plan 74:46–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cherry TL, Shogren JF (2001) Invasive species management for the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem: what do visitors think. Yellowstone Sci 9:10–15Google Scholar
  12. de Bello F, Carmona CP, Lepš J et al (2016) Functional diversity through the mean trait dissimilarity: resolving shortcomings with existing paradigms and algorithms. Oecologia 180:933–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dorcas ME, Willson JD, Reed RN et al (2012) Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive burmese pythons in everglades national park. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:2418–2422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dyer EE, Redding DW, Blackburn TM (2017) The global avian invasions atlas, a database of alien bird distributions worldwide. Scientific Data, 4, 170041.Google Scholar
  15. Ellison AM, Bank MS, Clinton BD et al (2005) Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 3:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fakhraei H, Driscoll CT, Renfro JR et al (2016) Critical loads and exceedances for nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition in great smoky mountains national park, United States. Ecosphere 7(10):e01466.Google Scholar
  17. Fancy S, Gross J, Carter S (2009) Monitoring the condition of natural resources in us national parks. Environ Monit Assess 151:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hansen AJ, Piekielek N, Davis C et al (2014) Exposure of us national parks to land use and climate change 1900–2100. Ecol Appl 24:484–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harvey RG, Perez L, Mazzotti FJ (2016) Not seeing is not believing: volunteer beliefs about burmese pythons in florida and implications for public participation in invasive species removal. J Environ Plan Manag 59:789–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hiebert RD, Stubbendieck JL (1993) Handbook for ranking exotic plants for management and control. Citeseer, DenverGoogle Scholar
  21. Hilborn R, Arcese P, Borner M et al (2006) Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science 314:1266–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Isaac NJ, Turvey ST, Collen B et al (2007) Mammals on the edge: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2:e296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jetz W, Thomas G, Joy J et al (2012) The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491:444–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li D, Monahan WB, Baiser B, (2018) Species richness and phylogenetic diversity of native and non-native species respond differently to area and environmental factors. Divers Distrib 24(6):853–864Google Scholar
  25. Lockwood JL (1999) Using taxonomy to predict success among introduced avifauna: relative importance of transport and establishment. Conserv Biol 13:560–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Manne LL, Pimm SL (2001) Beyond eight forms of rarity: which species are threatened and which will be next? Anim Conserv 4:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayo E (1975) Tourism and the national parks: a psychographic and attitudinal study. J Travel Res 14:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCleery RA, Sovie A, Reed RN et al (2015) Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the everglades. Proc Royal Society 282:20150120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McKinney ML (2004) Measuring floristic homogenization by non-native plants in North America. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 13:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKinney ML, Lockwood JL (1999) Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trends Ecol Evol 14:450–453.566Google Scholar
  31. Monahan WB, Fisichelli NA (2014) Climate exposure of us national parks in a new era of change. PLoS One 9:e101302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Monnet A-C, Jiguet F, Meynard CN et al (2014) Asynchrony of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity in birds. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:780–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Muir J (1901) Our national parks. Houghton Mifflin, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olden JD, Poff NL (2003) Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. Am Nat 162:442–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Olden JD, Rooney TP (2006) On defining and quantifying biotic homogenization. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Olden JD, Poff NL, Douglas MR et al (2004) Ecological and evolutionary consequences of biotic homogenization. Trends Ecol Evol 19:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Omernik JM (1987) Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 77:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Omernik JM, Griffith GE (2014) Ecoregions of the conterminous United States: evolution of a hierarchical spatial framework. Environ Manag 54:1249–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parrish JD, Braun DP, Unnasch RS (2003) Are we conserving what we say we are? Measuring ecological integrity within protected areas. Bioscience 53:851–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pimm SL, Russell GJ, Gittleman JL, Brooks TM (1995) The future of biodiversity. Science 269:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R et al (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344:1246752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2008) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Biological invasions. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  43. Pysek P, Pergl J, Essl F, Lenzner B, Dawson W, Kreft H et al (2017) Naturalized alien flora of the world: species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion. Preslia 89(3):203–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Qian H, Ricklefs RE (2006) The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora. Ecol Lett 9:1293–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodhouse TJ, Philippi TE, Monahan WB, Castle KT (2016) A macroecological perspective on strategic bat conservation in the US National Park ServiceGoogle Scholar
  46. Roosevelt T (1910) Speech given at the Colorado Livestock Association in Denver on 29 Aug 1910. http://www.theodorerooseveltcenter.org/Learn-About-TR/TR-Quotes?page=3. Downloaded 17 Mar 2018
  47. Runte A (1997) National parks: the American experience. University of Nebraska Press, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  48. Sackett TE, Record S, Bewick S et al (2011) Response of macroarthropod assemblages to the loss of hemlock (tsuga canadensis), a foundation species. Ecosphere 2:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sellars RW (2009) Preserving nature in the national parks: a history: with a new preface and epilogue. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  50. Sharp RL, Larson LR, Green GT (2011) Factors influencing public preferences for invasive alien species management. Biol Conserv 144:2097–2104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stohlgren TJ, Loope LL, Makarick LJ (2013) Invasive plants in the United States national parks. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P, editors. Plant invasions in protected areas: Patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 267–283Google Scholar
  52. Tingley MW, Orwig DA, Field R, Motzkin G (2002) Avian response to removal of a forest dominant: Consequences of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. J Biogeogr 29:1505–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Mantgem PJ, Stephenson NL, Byrne JC et al (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323:521–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Webb CO, Donoghue MJ (2005) Phylomatic: tree assembly for applied phylogenetics. Mol Ecol Notes 5:181–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ (2002) Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:475–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zanne AE, Tank DC, Cornwell WK et al (2014) Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. Nature 506:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daijiang Li
    • 1
  • Julie L. Lockwood
    • 2
  • Benjamin Baiser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Wildlife Ecology and ConservationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural ResourcesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations