Paraphrase Identification Based on Weighted URAE, Unit Similarity and Context Correlation Feature

  • Jie Zhou
  • Gongshen LiuEmail author
  • Huanrong Sun
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11109)


A deep learning model adaptive to both sentence-level and article-level paraphrase identification is proposed in this paper. It consists of pairwise unit similarity feature and semantic context correlation feature. In this model, sentences are represented by word and phrase embedding while articles are represented by sentence embedding. Those phrase and sentence embedding are learned from parse trees through Weighted Unfolding Recursive Autoencoders (WURAE), an unsupervised learning algorithm. Then, unit similarity matrix is calculated by matching the pairwise lists of embedding. It is used to extract the pairwise unit similarity feature through CNN and k-max pooling layers. In addition, semantic context correlation feature is taken into account, which is captured by the combination of CNN and LSTM. CNN layers learn collocation information between adjacent units while LSTM extracts the long-term dependency feature of the text based on the output of CNN. This model is experimented on a famous English sentence paraphrase corpus, MSRPC, and a Chinese article paraphrase corpus. The results show that the deep semantic feature of text could be extracted based on WURAE, unit similarity and context correlation feature. We release our code of WURAE, deep learning model for paraphrase identification and pre-trained phrase end sentence embedding data for use by the community.


Paraphrase identification Recursive Autoencoders Phrase embedding Sentence embedding Deep learning Semantic feature 



This research work has been funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61772337, U1736207 and 61472248), the SJTU-Shanghai Songheng Content Analysis Joint Lab, and program of Shanghai Technology Research Leader (Grant No. 16XD1424400).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electronic Information and Electrical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.SJTU-Shanghai Songheng Information Content Analysis Joint Lab.ShanghaiChina

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