State of the Art

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


General circulation refers to the global motion of the atmosphere. This atmospheric motion is driven by the uneven surface distribution of net solar incoming radiation, with a surplus in the tropics and a deficit in the polar regions which is translated into larger outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) than the one that is absorbed (Fig. 2.1). To compensate this imbalance, atmospheric and oceanic transport processes distribute the energy around the globe. Atmospheric winds and ocean currents accomplish this transport. From a dynamical point of view, the oceans and the atmosphere must be considered together as components of the climate system.


Atlantic Equatorial Mode Sahel Rainfall Atlantic Multidecadal Variability Mohino Multidecadal Time Scales 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alexander MA, Bladé I, Newman M, Lanzante JR, Lau N-C and Scott JD (2002) The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air–Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans. Journal of Climate 15 16 2205–2231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander MA and Scott JD (1997) Surface Flux Variability over the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Journal of Climate 10 11 2963–2978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali A and Lebel T (2009) The Sahelian standardized rainfall index revisited. International Journal of Climatology 29 12 1705–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashok K, Guan Z and Yamagata T (2001) Impact of the Indian Ocean dipole on the relationship between the Indian monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters 28 23 4499–4502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bader J and Latif M (2003) The impact of decadal-scale Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies on Sahelian rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters 30 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnston AG and Ropelewski CF (1992) Prediction of ENSO episodes using canonical correlation analysis. Journal of Climate 5 11 1316–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnston AG, Thiao W and Kumar V (1996) Long-lead forecasts of seasonal precipitation in Africa using CCA. Weather and Forecasting 11 4 506–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnston AG and Smith TM (1996) Specification and prediction of global surface temperature and precipitation from global SST using CCA. Journal of Climate 9 11 2660–2697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batterbury S and Warren A (2001) The African Sahel 25 years after the great drought: assessing progress and moving towards new agendas and approaches. Global Environmental Change 11 1 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellenger H, Guilyardi E, Leloup J, Lengaigne M and Vialard J (2013) ENSO representation in climate models: from CMIP3 to CMIP5. Climate Dynamics 42 7–8 1999–2018Google Scholar
  11. Berry GJ and Thorncroft C (2005) Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave. Monthly Weather Review 133 4 752–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biasutti M, Battisti DS and Sarachik ES (2003) The Annual Cycle over the Tropical Atlantic, South America, and Africa. Journal of Climate 16 15 2491–2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biasutti M, Battisti DS and Sarachik ES (2005) Terrestrial Influence on the Annual Cycle of the Atlantic ITCZ in an AGCM Coupled to a Slab Ocean Model. Journal of Climate 18 1 211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biasutti M, Sobel AH and Kushnir Y (2006) AGCM Precipitation biases in the tropical Atlantic. Journal of Climate 19 6 935–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biasutti M, Held IM, Sobel AH and Giannini A (2008) SST forcings and Sahel rainfall variability in simulations of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Journal of Climate 21 14 3471–3486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biasutti M (2013) Forced Sahel rainfall trends in the CMIP5 archive. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 4 1613–1623Google Scholar
  17. Bjerknes J (1921) The Meteorology of the Temperate Zone and the General Atmospheric circulation. Monthly Weather Review 49 1 1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bjerknes J (1969) Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Monthly Weather Review 97 3 163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bretherton C, Smith C and Wallace J (1992) An intercomparison of methods for finding coupled patterns in climate data. Journal of Climate 5 6 541–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Broecker WS (1987) Unpleasant surprises in the greenhouse? Nature, 328, 123–127, 1987Google Scholar
  21. Broecker WS (1991) The great ocean conveyor. Oceanography, 4, 79–89, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown JN, Sen Gupta A, Brown JR, Muir LC, Risbey JS, Whetton P, Zhang X, Ganachaud A, Murphy B and Wijffels SE (2013) Implications of CMIP3 model biases and uncertainties for climate projections in the western tropical Pacific. Climatic Change 119 1 147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bulic IH and Kucharski F (2012) Delayed ENSO impact on spring precipitation over North/Atlantic European region. Climate Dynamics 38 2593–2612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carton JA and Huang B (1994) Warm events in the tropical Atlantic. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24 5 888–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carton JA, Cao X, Giese BS and Da Silva AM (1996) Decadal and interannual SST variability in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 26 7 1165–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cayan DR (1992) Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Anomalies over the Northern Oceans: Driving the Sea Surface Temperature. Journal of Physical Oceanography 22 8 859–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charney J, Quirk WJ, Chow SH, Kornfield J (1977) A comparative study of the effects of albedo change on drought in semi-arid regions. Journal of Atmospheric Science 34 1366–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cherry S (1996) Singular Value Decomposition Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis. Journal of Climate 9 9 2003–2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cherry S (1997) Some comments on singular value decomposition analysis. Journal of Climate 10 7 1759–1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chiang JCH and Kushnir Y (2000) Interdecadal changes in eastern Pacific ITCZ variability and its influence on the Atlantic ITCZ. Geophysical Research Letters 27 3687–3690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chiang JCH, Kushnir Y and Giannini A (2002) Deconstructing Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone variability: Influence of the local cross-equatorial sea surface temperature gradient and remote forcing from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 107Google Scholar
  32. Chung CE and Ramanathan V (2006) Weakening of North Indian SST Gradients and the Monsoon Rainfall in India and the Sahel. Journal of Climate 19 10 2036–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clarke AJ (2014) El Nino physics and El Nino predictability. Annual review of marine science 6 79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cook KH (1999) Generation of the African Easterly Jet and Its Role in Determining West African Precipitation. Journal of Climate 12 5 1165–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cook KH and Vizy EK (2012) Impact of climate change on mid-twenty-first century growing seasons in Africa. Climate Dynamics 39 12 2937–2955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dai A, Lamb PJ, Trenberth KE, Hulme M, Jones PD and Xie P (2004) The recent Sahel drought is real. International Journal of Climatology 24 11 1323–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dai A (2013) Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature Climate Change 3 1 52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Delworth TL and Greatbatch RJ (2000) Multidecadal Thermohaline Circulation Variability Driven by Atmospheric Surface Flux Forcing. Journal of Climate 13 9 1481–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Delworth TL and Mann ME (2000) Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Dynamics 16 661–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deser C and Timlin MS (1997) Atmosphere–Ocean Interaction on Weekly Timescales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. Journal of Climate 10 3 393–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deser C, Alexander MA and Timlin MS (2003) Understanding the Persistence of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies in Midlatitudes. Journal of Climate 16 1 57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deser C, Phillips AS and Hurrell JW (2004) Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability: Linkages between the Tropics and the North Pacific during Boreal Winter since 1900. Journal of Climate 17 16 3109–3124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diatta S and Fink AH (2014) Statistical relationship between remote climate indices and West African monsoon variability. International Journal of Climatology 34 12 3348–3367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dixon KW, Delworth TL, Spelman MJ and Stouffer RJ (1999) The influence of transient surface fluxes on North Atlantic overturning in a coupled GCM climate change experiment. Geophysical Research Letters 26 17 2749–2752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Doi T, Vecchi GA, Rosati AJ and Delworth TL (2012) Biases in the Atlantic ITCZ in seasonal-interannual variations for a coarse-and a high-resolution coupled climate model. Journal of Climate 25 16 5494–5511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dong B and Sutton R (2015) Dominant role of greenhouse-gas forcing in the recovery of Sahel rainfall. Nature Climate Change 5 8 757–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Drobinski P, Sultan B and Janicot S (2005) Role of the Hoggar massif in the West African monsoon onset. Geophysical Research Letters 32 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Drosdowsky W and Chambers LE (2001) Near-Global sea surface temperature anomalies as predictors of Australian seasonal rainfall. Journal of Climate 14 7 1677–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Evan AT, Flamant C, Lavaysse C, Kocha C and Saci A (2015) Water Vapor–Forced Greenhouse Warming over the Sahara Desert and the Recent Recovery from the Sahelian Drought. Journal of Climate 28 1 108–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferrel W (1856) Essay on the winds and ocean currents. Nashville J. Med. and Surg. 11 287 301375–301389Google Scholar
  51. Folland C, Palmer T and Parker D (1986) Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures, 1091–85. 320 Nature Publishing GroupGoogle Scholar
  52. Fontaine B and Janicot S (1996) Sea surface temperature fields associated with West African rainfall anomaly types. Journal of Climate 9 11 2935–2940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fontaine B, Trzaska S and Janicot S (1998) Evolution of the relationship between near global and Atlantic SST modes and the rainy season in West Africa: statistical analyses and sensitivity experiments. Climate Dynamics 14 5 353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fontaine B, Garcia-Serrano J, Roucou P, Rodriguez-Fonseca B, Losada T, Chauvin F, Gervois S, Sijikumar S, Ruti P and Janicot S (2010) Impacts of warm and cold situations in the Mediterranean basins on the West African monsoon: observed connection patterns (1979–2006) and climate simulations. Climate Dynamics 35 1 95–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fontaine B, Monerie P-A, Gaetani M and Roucou P (2011) Climate adjustments over the African-Indian monsoon regions accompanying Mediterranean Sea thermal variability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 116 D23Google Scholar
  56. Frankignoul C and Hasselmann K (1977) Stochastic climate models, Part II Application to sea-surface temperature anomalies and thermocline variability. Tellus 29 4 289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gaetani M, Fontaine B, Roucou P and Baldi M (2010) Influence of the Mediterranean Sea on the West African monsoon: Intraseasonal variability in numerical simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 115 D24 D24115Google Scholar
  58. Gaetani M, Flamant C, Bastin S, Janicot S, Lavaysse C, Hourdin F, Braconnot P and Bony S (2016) West African monsoon dynamics and precipitation: the competition between global SST warming and CO2 increase in CMIP5 idealized simulations. Climate Dynamics 48 3 1353–1373Google Scholar
  59. Gardner MW and Dorling SR (1998) Artificial neural networks (the multilayer perceptron)—a review of applications in the atmospheric sciences. Atmospheric Environment 32 14–15 2627–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Giannini A, Chiang JCH, Cane MA, Kushnir Y and Seager R (2001) The ENSO Teleconnection to the Tropical Atlantic Ocean: Contributions of the Remote and Local SSTs to Rainfall Variability in the Tropical Americas*. Journal of Climate 14 24 4530–4544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Giannini A, Saravanan R and Chang P (2003) Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302 5647 1027–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Giannini A, Saravanan R and Chang P (2005) Dynamics of the boreal summer African monsoon in the NSIPP1 atmospheric model. Climate Dynamics 25 5 517–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Giannini A, Biasutti M, Held IM and Sobel AH (2008) A global perspective on African climate. Climatic Change 90 4 359–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Giannini A, Salack S, Lodoun T, Ali A, Gaye AT and Ndiaye O (2013) A unifying view of climate change in the Sahel linking intra-seasonal, interannual and longer time scales. Environmental Research Letters 8 2 024010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 106 449 447–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Glahn HR and Lowry DA (1972) The use of model output Statistics (MOS) in objective weather forecasting. Journal of Applied Meteorology 11 8 1203–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Greatbatch RJ, Lu J and Peterson KA (2004) Nonstationary impact of ENSO on Euro-Atlantic winter climate. Geophysical Research Letters 31 2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Greene AM, Giannini A and Zebiak SE (2009) Drought return times in the Sahel: A question of attribution. Geophysical Research Letters 36 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Grist JP and Nicholson SE (2001) A study of the dynamic factors influencing the rainfall variability in the West African Sahel. Journal of Climate 14 7 1337–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gu G and Adler RF (2004) Seasonal Evolution and Variability Associated with the West African Monsoon System. Journal of Climate 17 17 3364–3377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guan B and Nigam S (2008) Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures in the Twentieth Century: An Evolution-Centric Analysis of Variability and Trend. Journal of Climate 21 12 2790–2809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hadley G (1735) Concerning the cause of the general trade winds. Philosophical transactions Royal Society, London 29 58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hagos SM and Cook KH (2008) Ocean warming and late-twentieth-century Sahel drought and recovery. Journal of Climate 21 15 3797–3814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hall NMJ, Kiladis GN and Thorncroft CD (2006) Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part II: Dynamical Modes. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 63 9 2231–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Halpert MS and Ropelewski CF (1992) Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 5 6 577–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hartmann DL (1994) Global Physical Climatology. Academic Press, San Diego, USA 411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hasselmann K (1976) Stochastic climate models Part I. Theory. Tellus 28 6 473–485Google Scholar
  78. Hastenrath S (2012) Climate dynamics of the tropics. Springer Science & Business Media. 8Google Scholar
  79. Haylock MR, Peterson TC, Alves LM, Ambrizzi T, Anunciação YMT, Baez J, Barros VR, Berlato MA, Bidegain M, Coronel G, Corradi V, Garcia VJ, Grimm AM, Karoly D, Marengo JA, Marino MB, Moncunill DF, Nechet D, Quintana J, Rebello E, Rusticucci M, Santos JL, Trebejo I and Vincent LA (2006) Trends in total and extreme South American rainfall in 1960–2000 and links with sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate 19 8 1490–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Held IM, Delworth TL, Lu J, Findell KL and Knutson TR (2005) Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 50 17891–17896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hoerling M, Hurrell J, Eischeid J and Phillips A (2006) Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change. Journal of Climate 19 16 3989–4008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hsieh WW and Tang B (1998) Applying neural network models to prediction and data analysis in meteorology and oceanography. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79 9 1855–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hsieh WW (2001) Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis of the Tropical Pacific Climate Variability Using a Neural Network Approach. Journal of Climate 14 12 2528–2539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hulme M (2001) Climatic perspectives on Sahelian desiccation: 1973–1998. Global Environmental Change 11 1 19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Janicot S, Moron V and Fontaine B (1996) Sahel droughts and ENSO dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters 23 5 515–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Janicot S, Harzallah A, Fontaine B and Moron V (1998) West African Monsoon Dynamics and Eastern Equatorial Atlantic and Pacific SST Anomalies (1970–88). Journal of Climate 11 8 1874–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Janicot S, Trzaska S and Poccard I (2001) Summer Sahel-ENSO teleconnection and decadal time scale SST variations. Climate Dynamics 18 3 303–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Janicot S, Thorncroft CD, Ali A, Asencio N, Berry GJ, Bock O, Bourlès B, Caniaux G, Chauvin F, Deme A, Kergoat L, Lafore J-P, Lavaysse C, Lebel T, Marticoréna B, Mounier F, Nédélec P, Redelsperger J-L, Ravegnani F, Reeves CE, Roca R, De Rosnay P, Schlager H, Sultan B, Tomasini M and Ulanovsky A (2008) Large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006. Annales Geophysicae 26 2569–2595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Janowiak JE (1988) An Investigation of Interannual Rainfall Variability in Africa. Journal of Climate 1 3 240–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Joly M, Voldoire A, Douville H, Terray P and Royer JF (2007) African monsoon teleconnections with tropical SSTs: validation and evolution in a set of IPCC4 simulations. Climate Dynamics 29 1 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Joly M and Voldoire A (2009) Influence of ENSO on the West African Monsoon: Temporal Aspects and Atmospheric Processes. Journal of Climate 22 12 3193–3210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Joly M and Voldoire A (2010) Role of the Gulf of Guinea in the inter-annual variability of the West African monsoon: what do we learn from CMIP3 coupled simulations?. International Journal of Climatology 30 12 1843–1856Google Scholar
  93. Jung T, Ferranti L and Tompkins AM (2006) Response to the summer of 2003 Mediterranean SST anomalies over Europe and Africa. Journal of Climate 19 20 5439–5454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kiladis GN, Thorncroft CD and Hall NMJ (2006) Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part I: Observations. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 63 9 2212–2230Google Scholar
  95. Klein WH and Glahn HR (1974) Forecasting local weather by means of model output statistics. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 55 10 1217–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Knauss, JA (1997) Introduction to physical oceanography. Prentice Hall (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc, 1997Google Scholar
  97. Knight JR, Folland CK and Scaife AA (2006) Climate impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters 33 17 L17706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Knippertz P, Ulbrich U, Marques F and Corte-Real J (2003) Decadal changes in the link between El Niño and springtime North Atlantic oscillation and European–North African rainfall. International Journal of Climatology 23 11 1293–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Knutti R, Stocker TF, Joos F and Plattner GK (2003) Probabilistic climate change projections using neural networks. Climate Dynamics 21 3 257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kucharski F, Bracco A, Yoo JH and Molteni F (2008) Atlantic forced component of the Indian monsoon interannual variability. Geophysical Research Letters 35 4 L04706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kushnir Y, Barreiro M, Chang P, Chiang J, Lazar A and Malanotte-Rizzoli P (2003) The role of the south Atlantic in the Variability of the ITCZ White paper for CLIVAR/IAI/OOPCGoogle Scholar
  102. Lafore JP, Flamant C, Giraud V, Guichard F, Knippertz P, Mahfouf JF, Mascart P and Williams ER (2010) Introduction to the AMMA Special Issue on “Advances in understanding atmospheric processes over West Africa through the AMMA field campaign”. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 136, 2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lavaysse C, Flamant C, Janicot S, Parker DJ, Lafore JP, Sultan B and Pelon J (2009) Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective. Climate Dynamics 33 2 313–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lavaysse C, Flamant C and Janicot S (2010) Regional-scale convection patterns during strong and weak phases of the Saharan heat low. Atmospheric Science Letters 11 4 255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Le Barbé L, Lebel T and Tapsoba D (2002) Rainfall variability in West Africa during the years 1950–90. Journal of Climate 15 2 187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lebel T and Ali A (2009) Recent trends in the central and western Sahel rainfall regime (1990–2007). Journal of Hydrology 375 1–2 52–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lebel T, Parker DJ, Flamant C, Bourlès B, Marticorena B, Mougin E, Peugeot C, Diedhiou A, Haywood JM, Ngamini JB, Polcher J, Redelsperger JL and Thorncroft CD (2010) The AMMA field campaigns: multiscale and multidisciplinary observations in the West African region. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 136 S1 8–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Li G and Xie S-P (2013) Tropical Biases in CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: The excessive Equatorial Pacific cold tongue and double ITCZ problems*. Journal of Climate 27 4 1765–1780Google Scholar
  109. Lin Y-L, Robertson KE and Hill CM (2005) Origin and Propagation of a Disturbance Associated with an African Easterly Wave as a Precursor of Hurricane Alberto (2000). Monthly Weather Review 133 11 3276–3298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lindzen RS and Nigam S (1987) On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 44 17 2418–2436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ling J and Zhang C (2013) Diabatic heating profiles in recent global reanalyses. Journal of Climate 26 10 3307–3325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu Y, Chiang JCH, Chou C and Patricola CM (2014) Atmospheric teleconnection mechanisms of extratropical North Atlantic SST influence on Sahel rainfall. Climate Dynamics 43 9 2797–2811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. López-Parages J and Rodríguez-Fonseca B (2012) Multidecadal modulation of El Niño influence on the Euro-Mediterranean rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters 39 2 L02704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. López-Parages J, Rodríguez-Fonseca B and Terray L (2015) A mechanism for the multidecadal modulation of ENSO teleconnection with Europe. Climate Dynamics 45 3 867–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Losada T, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Janicot S, Gervois S, Chauvin F and Ruti P (2010a) A multi-model approach to the Atlantic Equatorial mode: impact on the West African monsoon. Climate Dynamics 35 1 29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Losada T, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Polo I, Janicot S, Gervois S, Chauvin F and Ruti P (2010b) Tropical response to the Atlantic Equatorial mode: AGCM multimodel approach. Climate Dynamics 35 1 45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Losada T, Rodriguez-Fonseca B, Mohino E, Bader J, Janicot S and Mechoso CR (2012) Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A non-stationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters 39 12 L12705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lothon M, Saïd F, Lohou F and Campistron B (2008) Observation of the Diurnal Cycle in the Low Troposphere of West Africa. Monthly Weather Review 136 9 3477–3500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lu J and Delworth TL (2005) Oceanic forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophysical Research Letters 32 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lu J (2009) The dynamics of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature forcing of Sahel drought. Climate Dynamics 33 4 445–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mahowald NM (2007) Anthropocene changes in desert area: Sensitivity to climate model predictions. Geophysical Research Letters 34 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Majda AJ, Timofeyev I and Vanden Eijnden E (1999) Models for stochastic climate prediction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 26 14687–14691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mariotti A, Zeng N and Lau KM (2002) Euro-Mediterranean rainfall and ENSO—a seasonally varying relationship. Geophysical Research Letters 29 12 59–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Marshall J, Kushnir Y, Battisti DS, Chang P, Czaja A, Dickson RR, Hurrell JW, McCartney MS, Saravanan R and Visbeck M (2001) North Atlantic climate variability: phenomena, impacts and mechanisms. International Journal of Climatology 21 1863–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Martin ER, Thorncroft C and Booth BBB (2013) The multidecadal Atlantic SST—Sahel rainfall teleconnection in CMIP5 simulations. Journal of Climate 27 2 784–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Martin ER and Thorncroft CD (2014) The impact of the AMO on the West African monsoon annual cycle. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 140 678 31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Martín-Rey M, Polo I, Rodríguez-Fonseca B and Kucharski F (2012) Changes in the interannual variability of the tropical Pacific as a response to an equatorial Atlantic forcing. Scientia Marina 76 S1 105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Martín-Rey M, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Polo I and Kucharski F (2014) On the Atlantic–Pacific Niños connection: a multidecadal modulated mode. Climate Dynamics 43 11 3163–3178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Martín-Rey M, Rodríguez-Fonseca B and Polo I (2015) Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction. Geophysical Research Letters 42 16 6802–6810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Marullo S, Artale V and Santoleri R (2011) The SST Multidecadal Variability in the Atlantic–Mediterranean Region and Its Relation to AMO. Journal of Climate 24 16 4385–4401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Merle J (1980) Seasonal variation of heat-storage in the tropical Atlantic ocean. Oceanologica Acta 3 4 455–463Google Scholar
  132. Mitchell TP and Wallace JM (1992) The Annual Cycle in Equatorial Convection and Sea Surface Temperature. Journal of Climate 5 10 1140–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mohino E, Janicot S and Bader J (2011a) Sahel rainfall and decadal to multi-decadal sea surface temperature variability. Climate Dynamics 37 3 419–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mohino E, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Losada T, Gervois S, Janicot S, Bader J, Ruti P and Chauvin F (2011b) Changes in the interannual SST-forced signals on West African rainfall. AGCM intercomparison. Climate Dynamics 37 9–10 1707–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mohino E, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Mechoso CR, Gervois S, Ruti P and Chauvin F (2011c) Impacts of the tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the seasonal cycle of the West African monsoon. Journal of Climate 24 15 3878–3891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Moron V, Robertson AW and Ward MN (2006) Seasonal Predictability and Spatial Coherence of Rainfall Characteristics in the Tropical Setting of Senegal. Monthly Weather Review 134 11 3248–3262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mortimore MJ and Adams WM (2001) Farmer adaptation, change and ‘crisis’ in the Sahel. Global Environmental Change 11 1 49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Moura AD and Shukla J (1981) On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil: Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 38 12 2653–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Munemoto M and Tachibana Y (2012) The recent trend of increasing precipitation in Sahel and the associated inter-hemispheric dipole of global SST. International Journal of Climatology 32 9 1346–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Namias J (1953) Thirty-day forecasting: A review of a ten-year experiment. Springer 2Google Scholar
  141. Namias J (1959) Recent seasonal interactions between north Pacific waters and the overlying atmospheric circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 64 6 631–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Newman M and Sardeshmukh PD (1995) A caveat concerning Singular Value Decomposition. Journal of Climate 8 2 352–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Newman M (2007) Interannual to Decadal Predictability of Tropical and North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures. Journal of Climate 20 11 2333–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nicholson SE and Palao IM (1993) A re-evaluation of rainfall variability in the sahel. Part I. Characteristics of rainfall fluctuations. International Journal of Climatology 13 4 371–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nicholson SE, Some B and Kone B (2000) An analysis of recent rainfall conditions in West Africa, including the rainy seasons of the 1997 El Niño and the 1998 La Niña Years. Journal of Climate 13 14 2628–2640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Nicholson SE and Grist JP (2003) The seasonal evolution of the atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa. Journal of Climate 16 7 1013–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nicholson S (2005) On the question of the “recovery” of the rains in the West African Sahel. Journal of Arid Environments 63 3 615–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Nicholson SE (2009) A revised picture of the structure of the “monsoon” and land ITCZ over West Africa. Climate Dynamics 32 7 1155–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Nicholson SE (2013) The West African Sahel: A review of recent studies on the rainfall regime and its interannual variability. ISRN Meteorology 1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Nnamchi H and Li J (2011) Influence of the South Atlantic Ocean Dipole on West African Summer precipitation. Journal of Climate 24 4 1184–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Nobre P and Shukla J (1996) Variations in sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America. Journal of Climate 9 2464–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Nonaka M, Nakamura H, Tanimoto Y, Kagimoto T and Sasaki H (2006) Decadal Variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension Simulated in an Eddy-Resolving OGCM. Journal of Climate 19 10 1970–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. North GR, Bell TL, Cahalan F and Moeng FJ (1982) Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal function. Monthly Weather Review 110 699–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Okumura Y and Xie S-P (2004) Interaction of the Atlantic Equatorial Cold Tongue and the African Monsoon. Journal of Climate 17 18 3589–3602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Palmer TN (1986) Influence of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans on Sahel rainfall. Nature 322 6076 251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Park J-Y, Bader J and Matei D (2015) Northern-hemispheric differential warming is the key to understanding the discrepancies in the projected Sahel rainfall. Nature Communications 6 5985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Park J-Y, Bader J and Matei D (2016) Anthropogenic Mediterranean warming essential driver for present and future Sahel rainfall. Nature Climate Change 6 10 941–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Parker DJ, Thorncroft CD, Burton RR and Diongue-Niang A (2005a) Analysis of the African easterly jet, using aircraft observations from the JET2000 experiment. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 131 608 1461–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Parker DJ, Burton RR, Diongue-Niang A, Ellis RJ, Felton M, Taylor CM, Thorncroft CD, Bessemoulin P and Tompkins AM (2005b) The diurnal cycle of the West African monsoon circulation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 131 611 2839–2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Peixoto JP and Oort AH (1992) Physics of climate. New York, NY (United States); American Institute of PhysicsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Peng P, Kumar A, Barnston AG, Goddard L (2000) Simulation skills of the SST-forced global climate variability of the NCEP-MRF9 and the Scripps–MPI ECHAM3 models. Journal of Climate 13 3657–3679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Penland C and Sardeshmukh PD (1995) The optimal growth of tropical Sea Surface Temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate 8 8 1999–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Penland C and Matrosova L (1998) Prediction of tropical Atlantic Sea Surface temperatures using linear inverse modeling. Journal of Climate 11 3 483–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Philander SHG (1990) El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation. International Geophysics Series, Academic Press 46 293Google Scholar
  165. Polo I, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Losada T and García-Serrano J (2008) Tropical Atlantic variability Modes (1979–2002). Part I: Time-evolving SST modes related to West African rainfall. Journal of Climate 21 24 6457–6475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Power S, Casey T, Folland C, Colman A and Mehta V (1999) Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on Australia. Climate Dynamics 15 5 319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Price JF, Weller RA, Schudlich RR (1987) Wind-driven ocean currents and Ekman transport. Science 238 1534–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Qin H, Kawamura H and Kawai Y (2007) Detection of hot event in the equatorial Indo-Pacific warm pool using advanced satellite sea surface temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 112 C7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ramel R, Gallée H and Messager C (2006) On the northward shift of the West African monsoon. Climate Dynamics 26 4 429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Rasmusson EM and Carpenter TH (1983) The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Monthly Weather Review 111 3 517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Redelsperger J-L, Thorncroft CD, Diedhiou A, Lebel T, Parker DJ and Polcher J (2006) African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An International Research Project and Field Campaign. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 12 1739–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Reed RJ, Norquist DC and Recker EE (1977) The Structure and Properties of African Wave Disturbances as Observed During Phase III of GATE. Monthly Weather Review 105 3 317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Richter I and Xie SP (2008) On the origin of equatorial Atlantic biases in coupled general circulation models. Climate Dynamics 31 5 587–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Richter I, Xie SP, Wittenberg A and Masumoto Y (2012) Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation. Climate Dynamics 38 5–6 985–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Riehl H (1945) Waves in the easterlies and the polar front in the tropics. University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  176. Rimac A, Storch J-Sv and Eden C (2016) The total energy flux leaving the ocean’s mixed layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 6 1885–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rodó X, Pascual M, Fuchs G and Faruque ASG (2002) ENSO and cholera: A nonstationary link related to climate change? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 20 12901–12906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Polo I, García-Serrano J, Losada T, Mohino E, Mechoso CR and Kucharski F (2009) Are Atlantic Niños enhancing Pacific ENSO events in recent decades?. Geophysical Research Letters 36 20 L20705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Janicot S, Mohino E, Losada T, Bader J, Caminade C, Chauvin F, Fontaine B, García-Serrano J, Gervois S, Joly M, Polo I, Ruti P, Roucou P and Voldoire A (2011) Interannual and decadal SST-forced responses of the West African monsoon. Atmospheric Science Letters 12 1 67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Mohino E, Mechoso CR, Caminade C, Biasutti M, Gaetani M, Garcia-Serrano J, Vizy EK, Cook K, Xue Y, Polo I, Losada T, Druyan L, Fontaine B, Bader J, Doblas-Reyes FJ, Goddard L, Janicot S, Arribas A, Lau W, Colman A, Vellinga M, Rowell DP, Kucharski F and Voldoire A (2015) Variability and predictability of West African Droughts: A review on the role of sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate 28 10 4034–4060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rowell D, Milford J, Folland C, Maskell K, Owen J and Ward M (1992) Modelling the influence of global sea surface temperatures on the variability and predictability of seasonal Sahel rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters 19 905–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Rowell DP (2001) Teleconnections between the tropical Pacific and the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 575 1683–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rowell DP (2003) The impact of Mediterranean SSTs on the Sahelian rainfall season. Journal of Climate 16 5 849–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rowell DP (2013) Simulating SST teleconnections to Africa: What is the state of the art?. Journal of Climate 26 15 5397–5418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rozas V and García-González I (2012) Too wet for oaks? Inter-tree competition and recent persistent wetness predispose oaks to rainfall-induced dieback in Atlantic rainy forest. Global and Planetary Change 94–95 62–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Schneider N and Cornuelle BD (2005) The Forcing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Journal of Climate 18 21 4355–4373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Seager R, Kushnir Y, Chang P, Naik N, Miller J and Hazeleger W (2001) Looking for the Role of the ocean in tropical Atlantic decadal climate variability. Journal of Climate 14 5 638–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Semazzi FHM and Sun L (1997) The Role of orography in determining the Sahelian climate. International Journal of Climatology 17 6 581–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Servain J, Picaut J and Merle J (1982) Evidence of remote forcing in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 12 5 457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Servain J, Wainer I, McCreary JP and Dessier A (1999) Relationship between the equatorial and meridional modes of climatic variability in the tropical Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters 26 4 485–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Shanahan TM, Overpeck JT, Anchukaitis KJ, Beck JW, Cole JE, Dettman DL, Peck JA, Scholz CA and King JW (2009) Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science 324 5925 377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sheffield J and Wood EF (2008) Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations. Climate Dynamics 31 1 79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Shin S-I, Sardeshmukh PD and Webb RS (2010) Optimal tropical sea surface temperature forcing of North American drought. Journal of Climate 23 14 3907–3917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sterl A and Hazeleger W (2003) Coupled variability and air-sea interaction in the South Atlantic Ocean. Climate Dynamics 21 7-8 559–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Stewart RH (2008). Introduction to Physical Oceanography. College Station, TX: Texas A and M.Google Scholar
  196. Stockdale TN, Alves O, Boer G, Deque M, Ding Y, Kumar A, Kumar K, Landman W, Mason S, Nobre P, Scaife A, Tomoaki O and Yun WT (2010) Understanding and predicting seasonal-to-interannual climate variability - The producer perspective. Procedia Environmental Sciences 1 55–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Stommel H (1948) The westward intensification of wind-driven ocean currents. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 29 2 202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Suárez-Moreno R, Rodríguez-Fonseca B, Barroso JA, Fink AH (2018) Interdecadal Changes in the Leading Ocean Forcing of Sahelian Rainfall Interannual Variability: Atmospheric Dynamics and Role of Multidecadal SST Background. J. Climate, 31, 6687–6710, CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sultan B and Janicot S (2000) Abrupt shift of the ITCZ over West Africa and intra-seasonal variability. Geophysical Research Letters 27 20 3353–3356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sultan B and Janicot S (2003) The West African monsoon dynamics. Part II: The “preonset” and “Onset” of the summer monsoon. Journal of Climate 16 21 3407–3427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sultan B and Gaetani M (2016) Agriculture in West Africa in the twenty-first century: Climate change and impacts scenarios, and potential for adaptation. Frontiers in Plant Science 7 1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Taguchi B, Xie S-P, Schneider N, Nonaka M, Sasaki H and Sasai Y (2007) Decadal Variability of the Kuroshio Extension: Observations and an Eddy-Resolving Model Hindcast. Journal of Climate 20 11 2357–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Tang B, Hsieh WW, Monahan AH and Tangang FT (2000) Skill comparisons between neural networks and Canonical Correlation Analysis in predicting the equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures. Journal of Climate 13 1 287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Thorncroft C and Hodges K (2001) African Easterly Wave Variability and Its Relationship to Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity. Journal of Climate 14 6 1166–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Thorncroft CD and Blackburn M (1999) Maintenance of the African easterly jet. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125 555 763–786Google Scholar
  206. Ting M, Kushnir Y, Seager R and Li C (2009) Forced and internal twentieth-century SST trends in the North Atlantic. Journal of Climate 22 6 1469–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Toniazzo T and Woolnough S (2014) Development of warm SST errors in the southern tropical Atlantic in CMIP5 decadal hindcasts. Climate Dynamics 43 11 2889–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Trenberth KE and Caron JM (2000) The Southern Oscillation Revisited: Sea Level Pressures, Surface Temperatures, and Precipitation. Journal of Climate 13 24 4358–4365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Trenberth KE and Shea DJ (2006) Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005. Geophysical Research Letters 33 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Turner J, Bindschadler R, Convey P, di Prisco G, Fahrbach E, Gutt J, Hodgson D, Mayewski P and Summerhayes C (2009) Antarctic climate change and the environment. Report 554Google Scholar
  211. Vallis GK (2006) Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Ciculation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 745Google Scholar
  212. Vannière B, Guilyardi E, Madec G, Doblas-Reyes F and Woolnough S (2013) Using seasonal hindcasts to understand the origin of the equatorial cold tongue bias in CGCMs and its impact on ENSO. Climate Dynamics 40 3–4 963–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Vauclair F, du Penhoat Y and Reverdin G (2004) Heat and mass budgets of the warm upper layer of the tropical Atlantic ocean in 1979–99. Journal of Physical Oceanography 34 4 903–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Villamayor J and Mohino E (2015) Robust Sahel drought due to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation in CMIP5 simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 42 1214–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Vimont DJ (2005) The Contribution of the Interannual ENSO Cycle to the Spatial Pattern of Decadal ENSO-Like Variability. Journal of Climate 18 12 2080–2092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Vimont DJ (2012) Analysis of the Atlantic Meridional Mode using linear inverse modeling: seasonality and regional influences. Journal of Climate 25 4 1194–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Vislocky RL and Fritsch JM (1995) Improved model output statistics forecasts through model consensus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 76 7 1157–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Visbeck M, Chassignet EP, Curry RG, Delworth TL, Dickson RR, Krahmann G (2003) The ocean’s response to North Atlantic Oscillation variability. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 134, American Geophysical Union, 113–145Google Scholar
  219. Vizy EK, Cook KH, Crétat J and Neupane N (2013) Projections of a Wetter Sahel in the Twenty-First Century from Global and Regional Models. Journal of Climate 26 13 4664–4687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. von Storch H and Zwiers F (1999) Statistical analysis in climatology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Wahl S, Latif M, Park W and Keenlyside N (2011) On the tropical Atlantic SST warm bias in the Kiel Climate Model. Climate Dynamics 36 5 891–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Walker GT (1925) Correlation in seasonal variations of weather- A further study of word weather. Monthly Weather Review 53 6 252–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Wallace JM, Smith C and Bretherton CS (1992) Singular Value Decomposition of wintertime sea surface temperature and 500-mb height anomalies. Journal of Climate 5 6 561–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Wang G and Eltahir EAB (2000) Biosphere—atmosphere interactions over West Africa. II: Multiple climate equilibria. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 126 565 1261–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wang C (2002) Atlantic climate variability and its associated atmospheric circulation cells. Journal of Climate 15 13 1516–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wang C, Dong S, Evan AT, Foltz GR and Lee S-K (2012) Multidecadal covariability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature, African dust, Sahel rainfall, and Atlantic hurricanes. Journal of Climate 25 15 5404–5415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Wang C, Deser C, Yu JY, DiNezio P and Clement A. (2017) El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO): A Review. In: Glynn P., Manzello D., Enochs I. (eds) Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Coral Reefs of the World, vol 8. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  228. Ward MN (1998) Diagnosis and short-lead time prediction of summer rainfall in tropical North Africa at interannual and multidecadal timescales. Journal of Climate 11 12 3167–3191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Widmann M (2005) One-dimensional CCA and SVD, and their relationship to regression maps. Journal of Climate 18 14 2785–2792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Wood RA, Keen AB, Mitchell JFB and Gregory JM (1999) Changing spatial structure of the thermohaline circulation in response to atmospheric CO2 forcing in a climate model. Nature 399 6736 572–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Xie SP and Carton JA (2004) Tropical Atlantic variability: Patterns, mechanisms, and impacts. Earth’s Climate 121–142Google Scholar
  232. Xue Y and Shukla J (1993) The Influence of Land Surface Properties on Sahel Climate. Part 1: Desertification. Journal of Climate 6 12 2232–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Xue Y, Chen M, Kumar A, Hu Z-Z and Wang W (2013) Prediction skill and bias of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2. Journal of Climate 26 15 5358–5378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zebiak SE (1993) Air–Sea Interaction in the Equatorial Atlantic Region. Journal of Climate 6 8 1567–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Zhang R and Delworth TL (2006) Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscillations on India/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. Geophysical Research Letters 33 17Google Scholar
  236. Zhang R-H, Rothstein LM and Busalacchi AJ (1998) Origin of upper-ocean warming and El Nino change on decadal scales in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Nature 391 6670 879–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zheng X and Eltahir EAB (1998) The Role of vegetation in the dynamics of West African monsoons. Journal of Climate 11 8 2078–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Physical Sciences, Department of Earth Physics and AstrophysicsComplutense University of MadridLos MolinosSpain

Personalised recommendations