Therapy of Cancer and Retroviral Diseases

  • Christopher Kwesi O. Williams


Cancer therapy around the world involves the disciplines of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, in that historical order of emergence. The marked global variation in the quality, accessibility and affordability of their provision would benefit from the adoption of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) concept of universal health care, which has so far been adopted only patchily in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Poor funding of health care (HC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) impedes provision of drugs and health technologies (HT), including radiation therapy, at appropriate levels, and insufficiency of social investments, including health insurance, results in poor access to HC and prohibitive out-of-pocket expenses. The WHO essential medicine lists (EML) provide guidance for cancer chemotherapy and HIV/AIDS management (HAM), but require prudent application by national health ministries. Dramatic advances in drug and HT developments that are expanding the spectrum of curable cancers are also associated with skyrocketing HC costs and its unaffordability, even in the wealthiest nations (WN), thus, highlighting the global need for wise choices. Public health strategies are appropriate for LMIC rather than the costly strategies of WN in cancer control policymaking, including targeting treatment populations for maximal cost-effectiveness. Emerging paradigms in HAM are encouraging for attainment of HIV eradication goals by 2035. Global deficiencies in hospice palliative care [CHPCA. History of the Canadian hospice palliative care association [May 16, 2017]. Available from:] require commitment to the WHO principles in national HPC development. Complementary and alternative HC strategies are shared by all cultures and should be accorded appropriate respect in the pursuit of the rewards of self-care.


Surgery Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Universal Technology Essential Hospice Palliative Complementary Alternative 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Kwesi O. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Hematology Oncology ConsultancyPort AngelesUSA

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