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Preparation of Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Fernanda Ferreira Cruz
  • Ligia Lins de Castro
  • Patricia Rieken Macedo RoccoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, are nano- to micron-sized vesicles, released from mesenchymal stem cells under different conditions and carry information capable of reestablishing homeostasis. EVs derived from MSCs transfer molecules (such as DNA, proteins/peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids) and/or organelles with reparative and anti-inflammatory properties to recipient cells. EVs present many advantages over MSCs, such as homing ability to target tissue, preventing undesired accumulation in other organs, and absence of any innate toxicity or association with long-term maldifferentiated engrafted cells, tumor generation, or immune rejection after stem cell injection. The paracrine anti-inflammatory effects promoted by MSC-derived EVs have attracted significant interest in the regenerative medicine field, including for potential use in different diseases. This chapter addresses methods used to induce the release of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells, the methods of extracting these vesicles, and processing and conditioning techniques used after extraction. We aim to enlighten the reader on how to choose the appropriate protocol and methods to obtain extracellular vesicles, characterize them, and use them in preclinical studies.

Keywords

Extracellular vesicles Mesenchymal cells Differential centrifugation Immunoaffinity isolation Density gradient Size exclusion filter Size exclusion chromatography Kit-based precipitation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernanda Ferreira Cruz
    • 1
  • Ligia Lins de Castro
    • 1
  • Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Biophysics InstituteFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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