Advertisement

Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Current Profile of Risks in Brazil

  • Evelyn Eisenstein
  • Eduardo Jorge Custódio da Silva
Chapter

Abstract

Children and adolescents have changed their behavior due to access to digital technologies and the Internet. This fact is globally irreversible. Digital connections promote new opportunities but also more health risks. Messages of violence, discourses of hatred and intolerance, contacts with strangers, and online dependence can generate psychological distress and physical damage that are increasingly common. Apps and social networks accessed on smartphones are the primary vehicles for these aggressions and risks. In Brazil, 24.3 million young people (82%) between 9 and 17 years access the Internet through their smartphones (91%) or computers (60%), and 52% of parents did not know what contents are accessed through the Internet, according to the survey ICT Kids Online Brazil (2016). This chapter analyzes online health and safety problems, assess the protective factors, and highlight the importance of mediation by parents, educators, and health professionals in this context.

Keywords

Children Adolescents Internet Protection factor Parent-children relationship Risk factor 

References

  1. AAP – American Academy of Pediatrics. 2016a. Media and Young Minds: Council on Communications and Media. www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/10/19/peds.2016-2591. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  2. ———. 2016b. Media use in school-aged children and adolescents. Pediatrics 138: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carter, Ben, Philippa Rees, Lauren Hale, Darsharna Bhattacharjee, and Mandar S. Paradkar. 2016. Association between portable screen-based media device access or use and sleep outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics 170: 1202–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carvalho, Teresa Cristina R. 2013. Bbzzz, você está ouvindo? In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 243–246. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  5. Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman, Joar Svanemyr, Avni Amin, Helga Fogstad, Lale Say, Françoise Girard, and Marleen Temmerman. 2015. Twenty years after the international conference on population and development: Where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights? The Journal of Adolescent Health 56: S1–S6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CERT – Centro de Estudos, Resposta e Tratamento de Incidentes e Segurança no Brasil. 2016. Cartilha de Segurança para Internet versão 4.0. São Paulo: CGI.Google Scholar
  7. CGI – Comitê Gestor da Internet. 2017. ICT Kids Online Brazil: Survey on Internet use by children in Brazil 2016. São Paulo: CGI.Google Scholar
  8. Del Peloso, Denise. 2013. Alterações posturais e riscos futuros. In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 247–258. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  9. Dworak, Markus Thomas Schierl, Thomas Bruns, and Heiko Klaus Strüder. 2007. Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school aged children. Pediatrics 120: 978–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eisenstein, Evelyn. 2005. Adolescência: definições, conceitos e critérios. Adolesc Saúde 2: 6–7.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2013. Crescimento biopsicosocial e virtual. In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 207–220. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  12. Eisenstein, Evelyn, and Eduardo Jorge Custódio da Silva. 2016. Crianças e adolescentes e o uso intensivo das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação: desafios para a saúde. In ICT Kids Online Brazil: Survey on Internet use by children in Brazil 2015, ed. Comitê Gestor da Internet (CGI), 177–126. São Paulo: Comitê Gestor da Internet.Google Scholar
  13. Eisenstein, Evelyn, Tito Morais, and Emmalie Ting. 2017. Resilience and preventing parenting. In Internet addiction in children and adolescents: Risk factors, assessment and treatment, ed. K. Young and C.N. Abreu, 161–175. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Gentile, Douglas A., Charles Oberg, Nancy E. Sherwood, Mary Story, David A. Walsh, Marjorie Hogan, et al. 2004. Well child visits in the videoage: Pediatricians and the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for children’s media use. Pediatrics 114: 1235–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giedd, Jay N. 2008. The teen brain: Insights from neuroimaging. The Journal of Adolescent Health 42: 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Google. 2013. Digital literacy tour. Google in Education. http://www.google.com/edu/resources/digital-literacy.html. Accessed 8 Sept 2017.
  17. Haberland, Nicole, and Deborah Rogow. 2015. Sexuality education: Emerging trends in evidence and practice. The Journal of Adolescent Health 56: S15–S21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hallowell, Edward, and J. Ratey. 2014. Driven to distraction: Recognizing and copping with attention déficit disorder from childhood through adulthood. New York: Touchston.Google Scholar
  19. Harari, Yuval Noah. 2015. Homo Deus: uma breve história do amanhã. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.Google Scholar
  20. Harvard Medical School. 2015. Harvard health letter: Blue light has a dark side. http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/blue-light-has-a-dark-side. Accessed 8 Sept 2017.
  21. ISMA – International Stress Management Association – Brasil. 2001. Homepage. http://www.ismabrasil.com.br. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  22. King, Jonathan E., Carolyn E. Walpole, and Kristi Lamon. 2007. Surf and turf wars online, growing implications of internet gang violence. The Journal of Adolescent Health 41: 66–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Livingstone, Sonia, and Monica Bulger. 2013. A global agenda for children’s rights in the digital age. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
  24. Livingstone, Sonia, and Tink Palmer. 2012. Identifying vulnerable children online and what strategies can help them. Londres: UK Safer Internet Centre.Google Scholar
  25. Loucas, Christina E., Christopher G. Fairburn, Craig Whittington, Mary E. Pennant, Sarah Stockton, and Tim Kendalla. 2014. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 63: 122–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luna, Cajetan. 2013. Uma web perturbada pela violência. In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 60–71. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  27. Morais, Tito. 2013. Segurança na Net e a cadeira de 4 pernas. In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 288–298. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2014. Projeto MiudosSegurosNa.Net. https://www.facebook.com/MiudosSegurosNa.Net/. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  29. NSCDC – National Scientific Council on Developing Child. 2017. Construindo o sistema de “controle do tráfico aéreo” do cérebro: como as primeiras experiências moldam o desenvolvimento das funções executivas. https://46y5eh11fhgw3ve3ytpwxt9r-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/estudo-func%CC%A7o%CC%83es-executivas-habilidades-para-a-vida-e-aprendizagem.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  30. NIC – Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR. 2016. Internet Segura: guias para crianças e adolescentes e para pais. https://internetsegura.br/. Accessed 8 June 2016.
  31. O’Keefe, Gwenn Schurgin. 2011. Cybersafe: Protecting and empowering kids in the digital world of texting, gaming and social media. Elk Groove Village: American Academy of Pediatrics.Google Scholar
  32. Rede E.S.S.E. Mundo Digital. 2015. Ética, segurança, saúde e educação para crianças e adolescentes. http://www.essemundodigital.com.br. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  33. Rich, Michael. 2014. Moving from child advocacy to evidence-based care for digital natives. JAMA Pediatrics 168: 404–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rich, Michael, Michael Tsappis, and Jill R. Kavanaugh. 2017. Problematic interactive media use among children and adolescents: Addiction, compulsion or syndrome? In Internet addiction in children and adolescents: Risk factors, assessment and treatment, ed. K. Young and C.N. Abreu, 3–28. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Rosenfield, Mark. 2011. Computer vision syndrome, a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 31: 502–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Siegel, Daniel J. 2016. Cérebro adolescente, a coragem e a criatividade da mente dos 12 aos 24 anos. São Paulo: nVersos.Google Scholar
  37. Silva, Eduardo Jorge Custodio, and Emmalie Ting. 2013. Tecnoestresse e cérebro em desenvolvimento. In Vivendo esse mundo digital: impactos na saúde, na educação e nos comportamentos sociais, ed. C.N. Abreu, E. Eisenstein, and S.G.B. Estefenon, 49–59. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  38. SBP – Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. 2016. Manual de Orientação, Saúde de Crianças e Adolescentes na Era Digital http://www.sbp.com.br/src/uploads/2016/11/19166d-MOrient-Saude-Crian-e-Adolesc.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  39. Strasburger, Victor C., Amy B. Jordan, and Ed Donnerstein. 2012. Children, adolescents and the media health effects. Pediatric clinics of North America 59: 533–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stratakis, Constantine A., and George P. Chrousos. 1995. Neuroendocrionology and pathophysiology of the stress system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 771: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fund. 2017. The state of the world’s children – 2017: Children in a digital world. New York: Unicef.Google Scholar
  42. WHO – World Health Organization. 2011. Declaração política do Rio sobre determinantes sociais da saúde. http://www.who.int/sdhconference/declaration/Rio_political_declaration_portuguese.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  43. ———. 2012. Violence prevention alliance: Definition and typology of violence. http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/approach/defintion/en/. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  44. Young, Kimberly S. 1998. Internet addiction: The emergence of a clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 1: 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Young, Kimberly S., and Cristiano N. Abreu. 2011. Dependência de internet: manual e guia de avaliação e tratamento. Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  46. Young, K.S. Abreu C.N. 2017. Internet addiction in children and adolescents: Risk factors, assessment and treatment. New York: Springer Pub CoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evelyn Eisenstein
    • 1
  • Eduardo Jorge Custódio da Silva
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Medical SciencesState University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Pedro Ernesto HospitalState University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations