Skip to main content

Light-Emitting Diodes for Horticulture

  • Chapter

Part of the Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series book series (SSLTA,volume 4)

Abstract

This chapter firstly describes the fundamental concepts of photosynthesis of plants and LEDs for applications in the plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL). The complexity of light environment control to maximize the cost performance of the PFAL is discussed for getting an idea of smart LED lighting system related to phenotyping, information and communication technology, and artificial intelligence. Secondly, influences of LED lighting environment at seedling stage on lettuce transplant growth and its subsequent growth and nutritional values were discussed as a case study for supporting a good system impact. Therefrom, effects of light intensity, photoperiod and LED quality on growth and quality of hydroponic lettuce were introduced for suitable light environment control in the PFAL.

Keywords

  • Continuous measurement of photosynthesis
  • Daily light integral
  • Indoor farming
  • LED lighting
  • Lettuce production
  • Nitrate content
  • Phenotyping
  • Photosynthetic characteristics
  • Plant factory
  • R:B ratio
  • Quality control

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-99211-2_14
  • Chapter length: 35 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-99211-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 14.1
Fig. 14.2
Fig. 14.3
Fig. 14.4
Fig. 14.5
Fig. 14.6

References

  1. C.A. Mitchell, M.P. Dzakovich, C. Gomez, R. Lopez, J.F. Burr, R. Hernandez, C. Kubota, C.J. Currey, Q. Meng, E.S. Runkle, C.M. Bourget, R.C. Morrow, A.J. Both, Light-emitting diodes in horticulture. Hortic. Rev. 42, 1–87 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  2. T. Kozai, K. Fujiwara, E. S. Runkle (eds.), LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture (Springer, Singapore, 2016), pp. 3–448

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. T. Kozai, G. H. Niu, M. Takagaki (eds.), Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production (Academic, Amsterdam, 2015), pp. 3–399

    Google Scholar 

  4. T. Kozai (ed.), Smart Plant Factory: Next-Generation Indoor Vertical Farms (Springer, Singapore, 2018)

    Google Scholar 

  5. S.M.A. Zobayed, F. Afreen, T. Kozai, Temperature stress can alter the photosynthetic efficiency and secondary metabolites concentrations in St. John’s wort. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 43, 977–984 (2005)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. A.J. Both, B. Bugbee, C. Kubota, R.G. Lopez, C. Mitchell, E.S. Runkle, C. Wallace, Proposed product label for electric lumps used in the plant sciences. HortTechnology 27(4), 544–549 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Goto E (2016) Measurement of photonmetric and radiometric characteristics of LEDs for plant cultivation. In: Kozai T, Fujiwara K, Runkle ES. LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 395-402

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. G. Zhang, S. Shen, M. Takagaki, T. Kozai, W. Yamamoto, Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves. Front. Plant Sci. 6, 1–9 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Lu N, Mitchell CA (2016) Supplemental lighting for greenhouse grown fruiting vegetables. In: Kozai T, Fujiwara K, Runkle ES. LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 219-232

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. M.E. Ghanem, H. Marrou, T.R. Sinclair, Physiological phenotyping of plants for crop improvement. Trends Plant Sci. 20(3), 139–144 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. M. Johkan, K. Shoji, F. Goto, Blue light-emitting diode light irradiation of seedlings improves seedling quality and growth after transplanting in red leaf lettuce. HortScience 45(12), 414–415 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. X.Y. Liu, T.T. Chang, S.R. Guo, Z.G. Xu, J. Li, Effect of different light quality of LED on growth and photosynthetic character in cherry tomato seedling. Acta Hortic. (907), 325–330 (2011). https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.907.53

  13. R. Hernández, C. Kubota, Physiological responses of cucumber seedlings under different blue and red photon flux ratios using LEDs. Environ. Exp. Bot. 121(1), 66–74 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. J. Song, Q. Meng, W. Du, D. He, Effects of light quality on growth and development of cucumber seedlings in controlled environment. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng. 10(3), 312–318 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  15. X.L. Chen, Q.C. Yang, W.P. Song, Growth and nutritional properties of lettuce affected by different alternating intervals of red and blue LED irradiation. Sci. Hortic. 223, 44–52 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. J. Wang, W. Lu, Y.X. Tong, Q.C. Yang, Leaf morphology, photosynthetic performance, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) exposed to different ratios of red light to blue light. Front. Plant Sci. 7, 250 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  17. K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Kondo, Growth and morphogenesis of lettuce seedlings raised under different combinations of red and blue light. Acta Hortic. (435), 149–158 (1997). https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.1997.435.14

  18. M.E. Hoenecke, R.J. Bula, T.W. Tibbitts, Importance of ‘blue’ photon levels for lettuce seedlings grown under red-light-emitting diodes. HortScience 127(5), 427 (1992)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Y.X. Miao, Physiological response mechanism of cucumber seedlings to red and blue light, Ph.D. Thesis of China Agriculture University, 2015, pp. 17–25

    Google Scholar 

  20. K.H. Son, M.M. Oh, Leaf shape, growth, and antioxidant phenolic compounds of two lettuce cultivars grown under various combinations of blue and red light-emitting diodes. HortScience 48(8), 988–995 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. W.H. Kang, J.S. Park, K.S. Park, Leaf photosynthetic rate, growth, and morphology of lettuce under different fractions of red, blue, and green light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 57(6), 573–579 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. K.H. Lin, M.Y. Huang, W.D. Huang, The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). Sci. Hortic. 150(2), 86–91 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. M. Johkan, K. Shoji, F. Goto, Effect of green light wavelength and intensity on photomorphogenesis and photosynthesis in Lactuca sativa. Environ. Exp. Bot. 75, 128–133 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. H. Zhai, Effect of lighting environment at seedling stage on growth of hydroponic lettuce transplant and its late harvest, Master Thesis of China Agricultural University, 2017, pp. 10–43

    Google Scholar 

  25. X. Zhang, Technical foundation of environmental feedback control of hydroponic lettuce based on photosynthesis simulation, Ph.D Thesis of China Agricultural University, 2017, pp. 12–28, 58–82

    Google Scholar 

  26. H.S. Li, Experimental Principle and Technology of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (High Education Press, Beijing, 2000), pp. 122–123, 190–192, 202–204, 267–268

    Google Scholar 

  27. Y. Kitaya, G.H. Niu, T. Kozai, M. Ohashi, Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and CO2 concentration affect growth and morphology of lettuce plug transplants. HortScience 33(6), 988–991 (1998)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. L. Gaudreau, J. Charbonneau, L.P. Vézina, Photoperiod and photosynthetic photon flux influence growth and quality of greenhouse-grown lettuce. HortScience 29(11), 1285–1289 (1994)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. J.A. Zavala, D.A. Ravetta, Allocation of photoassimilates to biomass, resin and carbohydrates in Grindelia chiloensis as affected by light intensity. Field Crop Res. 69(2), 143–149 (2001)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. H.K. Lichtenthaler, A. Alexander, M.V. Marek, Differences in pigment composition, photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence images of sun and shade leaves of four tree species. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 45(8), 577–588 (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. X.X. Fan, Z.G. Xu, X.Y. Liu, Effects of light intensity on the growth and leaf development of young tomato plants grown under a combination of red and blue light. Sci. Hortic. 153, 50–55 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. T. Steinger, B.A. Roy, M.L. Stanton, Evolution in stressful environments II: adaptive value and costs of plasticity in response to low light in Sinapis arvensis. J. Evol. Biol. 16(2), 313–323 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. W. Oh, E.S. Runkle, R.M. Warner, Timing and duration of supplemental lighting during the seedling stage influence quality and flowering in petunia and pansy. HortScience 45(9), 1332–1337 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. T.W. McNellis, X.W. Deng, Light control of seedling morphogenetic pattern. Plant Cell 7(11), 1749 (1995)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. W. Fu, P.P. Li, Y. Wu, J. Tang, Effects of different light intensities on anti-oxidative enzyme activity, quality and biomass in lettuce. Hortic. Sci. 39, 129–134 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  36. Z. Yang, W. He, S. Mou, X. Wang, D. Chen, X. Hu, L. Chen, J. Bai, Plant growth and development of pepper seedlings under different photoperiods and photon flux ratios of red and blue LEDs. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 33(17), 173–180 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  37. R. Wojciechowska, O. Długosz-Grochowska, A. Kołton, M. Zupnik, Effects of LED supplemental lighting on field and some quality parameters of lamb’s lettuce grown in two winter cycles. Sci. Hortic. 187, 80–86 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. C.T. Della Valle, C.R. Daniel, B. Aschebrook-Kilfoy, A.R. Hollenbeck, A.J. Cross, R. Sinha, M.H. Ward, Dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Br. J. Cancer 108, 205–212 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. C.L. Chang, K.P. Chang, The growth response of leaf lettuce at different stages to multiple wavelength-band light-emitting diode lighting. Sci. Hortic. 179, 78–84 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. R. Breessani, J.E. Braham, L.G. Elias, All vegetable protein mixtures for human feeding. Can. J. Biochem. 42(4), 631 (1964)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. L.W. Zhang, S.Q. Liu, Z.K. Zhang, Dynamic effects of different light qualities on pea sprouts quality. North. Hortic. 8, 4–7 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  42. S. Nobile, J. M. Woodhill (eds.), Vitamin C in the Human Body (Springer, Dordrecht, 1981), pp. 57–75

    Google Scholar 

  43. P. Pinho, K. Jokinen, L. Halonen, The influence of the LED light spectrum on the growth and nutrient uptake of hydroponically grown lettuce. Light. Res. Technol. 49(7), 866–881 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. H.M. Qian, T.Y. Liu, M.D. Deng, Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts. Food Chem. 196, 1232–1238 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. K. Ohashi, M. Takase, N. Kon, Effect of light quality on growth and vegetable quality in leaf lettuce, spinach and komatsuna. Environ. Control. Biol. 45(3), 189–198 (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  46. J. K. Cao, W. B. Jiang, Y. M. Zhao (eds.), Physiological and Biochemical Experimental Guidance of Fruits and Vegetables (China Light Industry Press, Beijing, 2007), pp. 49–50

    Google Scholar 

  47. Z.J. Zhang, D.X. He, G.H. Niu, R.F. Gao, Concomitant CAM and C3 photosynthetic pathways in Dendrobium officinale plants. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 139(3), 290–298 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  48. T. Kozai, Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory. Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B Phys. Biol. Sci. 89(10), 447–461 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. N.N. Cometti, M.Q. Martins, C.A. Bremen Kamp, J.A. Nunes, Nitrate concentration in lettuce leaves depending on photosynthetic photon flux and nitrate concentration in the nutrient solution. Hortic. Bras. 29, 548–553 (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. J.Z. Mao, Q. Qiu, F. Zhang, N. Li, Y.G. Hu, X.Z. Xue, Impact of different photoperiods on the morphological index, quality and absorptive amount to ions of lettuce in fluorescent light source. North. Hortic. 15, 24–28 (2013). in Chinese

    Google Scholar 

  51. H.K. Jeong, K.K. Sugumaran, L.S.A. Sarah, B.R. Jeong, J.H. Seung, Light intensity and photoperiod Influence the growth and development of hydroponically grown leaf lettuce in a closed-type plant factory system. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 54(6), 501–509 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. L.D. Albright, A.J. Both, A. Chiu, Controlling greenhouse light to a constant daily integral. Trans. ASAE 43(2), 421–431 (2000)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. A.J. Both, Ten years of hydroponic lettuce research. Knowledgecenter, illumitex.com, 2001, pp. 1–14

  54. A. Scaife, S. Schloemer, The diurnal pattern of nitrate uptake and reduction by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Ann. Bot. 73(3), 337–343 (1994)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  55. N. Gruda, Impact of environmental variables on product quality of greenhouse vegetables for fresh consumption. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 24, 227–247 (2005)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. D. McCall, J. Willumsen, Effects of nitrogen availability and supplementary light on the nitrate content of soil-grown lettuce. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. 174(4), 458–463 (1999)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. G. Aparna, M.D. Kleinhenz, J.C. Scheerens, P.P. Ling, Anthocyanin levels in nine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars: influence of planting data and relations among analytic, instrumented, and visual assessments of color. HortScience 42(2), 232–238 (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  58. J. Zhong, T. Seki, S. Kinoshita, T. Yoshida, Effect of light irradiation on anthocyanin production by suspended culture of Perilla frutecens. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 38, 653–658 (1991)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. J.E. Park, Y.G. Park, B.R. Jeong, S.J. Hwang, Growth and anthocyanin content of lettuce as affected by artificial light source and photoperiod in a closed-type plant production system. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 30(6), 673–679 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. X.L. Chen, W.Z. Guo, X.Z. Xue, L.C. Wang, Growth and quality response of ‘Green Oak Leaf’ lettuce as affected by monochromic or mixed radiation provided by fluorescent lamp (FL) and light-emitting diode (LED). Sci. Hortic. 172, 168–175 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. W. Zhou, W. Liu, Q. Yang, Reducing nitrate concentration in lettuce by elongated lighting delivered by red and blue LEDs before harvest. J. Plant Nutr. 36, 481–490 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Z.P. Ye, J.D. Suggett, P. Robakowski, A mechanistic model for the photosynthesis-light response based on the photosynthetic electron transport of PS II in C3 and C4 species. New Phytol. 152, 1251–1262 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) project of Preliminary Study on Plant Phonemics and its Application by Artificial Intelligence, Japan (2017–2019), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2013AA103005), and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0403901), respectively.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dongxian He .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

He, D., Kozai, T., Niu, G., Zhang, X. (2019). Light-Emitting Diodes for Horticulture. In: Li, J., Zhang, G.Q. (eds) Light-Emitting Diodes. Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series, vol 4. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99211-2_14

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99211-2_14

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-99210-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-99211-2

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)