Advertisement

Resilient Fishing Families and Communities: Adapting to Change

  • Flaxen D. L. Conway
  • Lori A. Cramer
Chapter
Part of the Ethnobiology book series (EBL)

Abstract

This chapter synthesizes more than two decades of interdisciplinary scholarship by the coauthors related to fishing families and coastal communities. Amid the contemporary narrative of increasing coastal storms, erosion, and other physical hazards associated with climate and related coastal hazards facing coastal communities, we find myriad ways that Oregon fishing families and communities adapt to changes and continually demonstrate cultural and community resilience. Fishing families have exhibited their resilience through transformations in family roles, changes in the makeup of the fleet (graying), and never-ending management and resource shifts. This process of adapting to change has been a thread in our research, from one of our first collaborative projects, Adapting to Change: Fishing Businesses, Families, Communities, and Regions (1995) to our current project, The Old(er) Men of the Sea: Graying of the Fishing Industry and Its Impact on Local Community Resiliency. Our work illustrates an ever-present culture of adaptation that serves as the anchor of resilience in coastal Oregon.

References

  1. Adger, W. N. (2000). Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography, 24(3), 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auerbach, C., & Silverstein, L. B. (2003). Qualitative data: An introduction to coding and analysis. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Allyn and Bacon Publishing, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  5. Calhoun, S., Conway, F., & Russell, S. (2016). Acknowledging the voice of women: Implications for fisheries management and policy. Marine Policy, 74, 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caracciolo, D. (2017). Youth recruitment and an aging workforce: A pilot study of intergenerational family business in Oregon’s commercial fishing industry. Master’s thesis, Oregon State University. Retrieved February 26, 2018, from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/b2774142k.
  7. Conway, F. (2000). Building effective outreach to fishing families. In S. Hanna & M. Hall-Arber (Eds.), Change and resilience in fishing. Corvallis: Oregon Sea Grant.Google Scholar
  8. Conway, F. (2001). Outreach, communication, and empowerment: Commercial fishing communities and change. In S. Smith & S. Jacobs (Eds.), Transformations in the lives of commercial fishing families and communities: Reports from the late twentieth century. Gainesville: Florida Sea Grant.Google Scholar
  9. Conway, F. (2006). Sharing knowledge, power, and respect: Keys in bringing communities together to improve science, practice, and relationships. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 11(1), 129–137.Google Scholar
  10. Conway, F., & Hildenbrand, K. (2009). Adding value to ocean- and fisheries-related research through integrating the knowledge and expertise of the west coast fishing community: The final evaluation of the Port Liaison Project. Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Region.Google Scholar
  11. Conway, F., & Pomeroy, C. (2006). Evaluate the human—As well as the biological—Objectives of cooperative fisheries research. Fisheries, 31(9), 447–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conway, F., & Shaw, W. (2008). Socioeconomic lessons learned from the federally-declared west coast groundfish disaster. Fisheries, 33(6), 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conway, F., Gilden, J., & Zvonkovic, A. (2002). Changing communication and roles: Innovations in Oregon’s fishing families, communities, and management. Fisheries, 27(10), 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conway, F., Pomeroy, C., & Hall-Arber, M. (2010a). Managing data-poor fisheries by paying attention to managing relationships. In Managing data-poor fisheries: Case studies, models and solutions. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1–4 December 2008.Google Scholar
  15. Conway, F., Stevenson, J., Hunter, D., et al. (2010b). Ocean space, ocean place: The human dimensions of wave energy in Oregon. Oceanography, 23(2), 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cramer, L. A. (2000). Community infrastructure and development of human capital: A Pacific view. In S. Hanna & M. Hall-Arber (Eds.), Change and resilience in fishing. Corvallis: Oregon Sea Grant.Google Scholar
  17. Cramer, L. A., Kennedy, J. J., Krannich, R. S., et al. (1993). Changing Forest Service values and their implications for land management decisions affecting resource-dependent communities. Rural Sociology, 58, 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cutter, S. L. (2009). Social science perspectives on hazards and vulnerability science. In T. Beer (Ed.), Geophysical hazards, international year of planet earth.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3236-2_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., et al. (2008). Community and regional resilience—perspectives from hazards, disasters and emergency management. Research Report 1, Community and Regional Resilience Initiative.Google Scholar
  20. Finley, C. (2011). All the fish in the sea: Maximum sustainable yield and the failure of fisheries management. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer, A. P., Paveglio, T., Carroll, M., et al. (2013). Assessing social vulnerability to climate change in human communities near public forests and grasslands: A framework for resource managers and planners. Journal of Forestry, 111(5), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flathers, C. (2017). Continuity & change: Commercial fishing & community resilience on the Oregon coast. Master’s research paper, Oregon State University. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_projects/qj72pd39z.
  23. Flora, C. B., & Flora, J. L. (2013). Rural communities: Legacy and change (4th ed.). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  24. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockström, J. (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 20. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art20/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fussel, H. M. (2007). Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change, 17, 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gale, R. P., & Cordray, S. M. (1994). Making sense of sustainability: Nine answers to “What should be sustained?”. Rural Sociology, 59(2), 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilden, J., & Conway, F. (2001). An investment in trust: Communication in the commercial fishing and fisheries management community. Corvallis: Oregon Sea Grant.Google Scholar
  29. Gilden, J., & Conway, F. (2002). Fishing community attitudes toward socioeconomic research and data collection by fisheries managers. Northwest Region: Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service.Google Scholar
  30. Hall-Arber, M., Pomeroy, C., & Conway, F. (2009). Figuring out the human dimensions of fisheries: Illuminating models. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 1, 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heinz Center. (2002). Human links to coastal disasters. Washington, DC: H. John Heinz Center for Science, Economics and the Environment.Google Scholar
  32. Henkel, S., Conway, F., & Boehlert, G. (2013). Environmental and human dimensions of ocean renewable energy development (invited). Proceedings of Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 101(4), 991–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Industrial Economics, Inc. (2012). Identification of OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts and analysis of potential mitigation measures. Herndon: U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.Google Scholar
  34. Jacob, S., Farmer, F. L., Jepson, M., et al. (2001). Landing a definition of fishing dependent communities: Potential social science contributions to meeting national standard 8. Fisheries, 26(10), 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Janssen, M. A., Schoon, M. L., Ke, W., et al. (2006). Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, T. J., & Stallmann, J. I. (1994). Human capital investment in resource dominated economies. Society and Natural Resources, 7, 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krannich, R. S., & Luloff, A. E. (1991). Progress in rural policy and planning. London: Bellhaven Press.Google Scholar
  38. Lui, J., et al. (2007). Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science, 317(5844), 1513–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lune, H., & Berg, B. L. (2012). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. New York: NY Pearson.Google Scholar
  40. Machlis, G. E., & Force, J. E. (1988). Community stability and timber-dependent communities. Rural Sociology, 53, 220–234.Google Scholar
  41. Magis, K. (2010). Community resilience: An indicator of social sustainability. Society & Natural Resources, 23(5), 401–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mark, J. J. (2010). Heraclitus of Ephesus. Ancient history encyclopedia. https://www.ancient.eu/Heraclitus_of_Ephesos/.
  43. Marshall, N. A., Fenton, D. M., Marshall, P. A., et al. (2007). How resource dependency can influence social resilience within a primary resource industry. Rural Sociology, 72(3), 359–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maxwell, J. A. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  45. McLeod, K., & Leslie, H. (2009). Ecosystem-based management for the oceans. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mederer, H., & Barker, C. (2000). Reconstructing identities, families, communities, and futures in the wake of fisheries regulation. In S. Hanna & M. Hall-Arber (Eds.), Change and resilience in fishing. Corvallis: Oregon Sea Grant.Google Scholar
  47. Miller, F., Osbahr, B. E., Thomalla, F., et al. (2010). Resilience and vulnerability: Complementary or conflicting concepts. Ecology and Society, 15(3), 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. National Research Council. (2004). Cooperative research in the National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  49. Norris, F., Stevens, S., Pfefferbaum, B., et al. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 127–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ostrom, E. (2009). A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science, 325(5939), 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peluso, N. L., Humphrey, C. R., & Fortmann, L. P. (1994). The rock, the beach and the tidal pool: People and poverty in natural resource-dependent areas. Society & Natural Resources, 7, 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pomeroy, C., Hall-Arber, M., & Conway, F. (2015). Power and perspective: Fisheries and the ocean commons beset by demands of development. Marine Policy, 61, 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Russell, S., Sparks, K., Arias-Arthur, A., et al. (2014). Pacific coast groundfish trawl fishery social study. Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from https://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/cb/ecosystem/humandim/groundfish-study.cfm.
  54. Shackeroff, J., Hazen, E., & Crowder, L. (2009). The oceans as peopled seascapes. In K. McLeod & H. Leslie (Eds.), Ecosystem-based management for the oceans. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  55. Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sullivan, C., Conway, F., Pomeroy, C., et al. (2015). Combining geographic information systems and ethnography to better understand and plan ocean space use. Applied Geography, 59, 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tierney, K. J., Lindell, M. K., & Perry, R. (2001). Facing the unexpected: Disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flaxen D. L. Conway
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lori A. Cramer
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sociology/Oregon Sea Grant/Marine Resource ManagementOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology/School of Public PolicyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.School of Public PolicyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations