Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall: The SACANA Program
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In research, dietary intake data are mainly assessed using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (semi-, quantitative), 24-h dietary recall (repeated, 24HDR) or food diary/records (repeated). In the USA, a Web-based automated, self-administered 24HDR was shown to be a low-cost method for collecting accurate dietary intake information, but no such instrument was available for Europe. In I.Family, we developed a Web-based automated, self-administered 24HDR for large-scale assessment of dietary intake data in children, adolescents and their families across Europe. The Self-Administered Children, Adolescents and Adults Nutrition Assessment (SACANA) program used in the I.Family study is able to assess the absolute nutrient and energy intake, the per cent contribution from foods and drinks to total energy and nutrient intake, as well as portion sizes and food groups among the children and their families. Further, place and time of all eating and snacking occasions during the past 24 h as well as eating in company and simultaneous eating activities (e.g., reading, TV watching) can be reported. The program collects self-reported dietary data in individuals from 11 years of age and above, with parental assistance at younger ages. In order to reduce errors in portion size estimation, in food composition tables and incomplete recalls the program offers features such as photo-assisted correct portion size estimation, multiple plausibility checks and reminding questions. The instrument was found to collect reproducible and valid data. SACANA is a reproducible, validated and suitable self-administered instrument for obtaining Web-based 24HDR data from children, adolescents and adults in large-scale studies across Europe.
KeywordsFood Composition Tables (FCTs) Standard Food Groups Self-Administered Children Plausibility Checks Country-specific FCTs
The development of instruments, the baseline data collection and the first follow-up work as part of the IDEFICS study (www.idefics.eu) were financially supported by the European Commission within the Sixth RTD Framework Programme Contract No. 016181 (FOOD). The most recent follow-up including the development of new instruments and the adaptation of previously used instruments was conducted in the framework of the I.Family study (www.ifamilystudy.eu) which was funded by the European Commission within the Seventh RTD Framework Programme Contract No. 266044 (KBBE 2010–14).
We thank all families for participating in the extensive examinations of the IDEFICS and I.Family studies. We are also grateful for the support from school boards, headmasters and communities.
We greatly appreciate the input of the following colleagues: Markus Modzelewski from Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Bremen, Germany, Selim Cici, Claudia Brünings-Kuppe, and Timm Intemann from the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
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