Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall: The SACANA Program
In research, dietary intake data are mainly assessed using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (semi-, quantitative), 24-h dietary recall (repeated, 24HDR) or food diary/records (repeated). In the USA, a Web-based automated, self-administered 24HDR was shown to be a low-cost method for collecting accurate dietary intake information, but no such instrument was available for Europe. In I.Family, we developed a Web-based automated, self-administered 24HDR for large-scale assessment of dietary intake data in children, adolescents and their families across Europe. The Self-Administered Children, Adolescents and Adults Nutrition Assessment (SACANA) program used in the I.Family study is able to assess the absolute nutrient and energy intake, the per cent contribution from foods and drinks to total energy and nutrient intake, as well as portion sizes and food groups among the children and their families. Further, place and time of all eating and snacking occasions during the past 24 h as well as eating in company and simultaneous eating activities (e.g., reading, TV watching) can be reported. The program collects self-reported dietary data in individuals from 11 years of age and above, with parental assistance at younger ages. In order to reduce errors in portion size estimation, in food composition tables and incomplete recalls the program offers features such as photo-assisted correct portion size estimation, multiple plausibility checks and reminding questions. The instrument was found to collect reproducible and valid data. SACANA is a reproducible, validated and suitable self-administered instrument for obtaining Web-based 24HDR data from children, adolescents and adults in large-scale studies across Europe.
The development of instruments, the baseline data collection and the first follow-up work as part of the IDEFICS study (www.idefics.eu) were financially supported by the European Commission within the Sixth RTD Framework Programme Contract No. 016181 (FOOD). The most recent follow-up including the development of new instruments and the adaptation of previously used instruments was conducted in the framework of the I.Family study (www.ifamilystudy.eu) which was funded by the European Commission within the Seventh RTD Framework Programme Contract No. 266044 (KBBE 2010–14).
We thank all families for participating in the extensive examinations of the IDEFICS and I.Family studies. We are also grateful for the support from school boards, headmasters and communities.
We greatly appreciate the input of the following colleagues: Markus Modzelewski from Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Bremen, Germany, Selim Cici, Claudia Brünings-Kuppe, and Timm Intemann from the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
- Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia (BDA). Food composition database for epidemiological studies in Italy. Milan, Italy: European Institute of Oncology. 2015. http://www.bda-ieo.it/. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- Belgian Federal Public Service. La Table Belge de composition des aliments. Nubel. 2016. http://www.nubel.com/fr/table-de-composition-des-aliments.html. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- Cameron ME, van Staveren WA. Manual on methodology for food consumption studies (Oxford Medical Publications). New York: Oxford University Press; 1988.Google Scholar
- El Centro de Enseñanza Superior de Nutrición y Dietética (CESNID). Tablas de composición de alimentos del CESNID. Barceolona: Edicions Universitat de Barcelona; 2003.Google Scholar
- European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR). Food composition databases. 2018. http://www.eurofir.org/food-information/food-composition-databases-2/. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
- Intemann T, Pigeot I, De Henauw S, Eiben G, Lissner L, Krogh V, et al.; I.Family consortium. Urinary sucrose and fructose to validate self-reported sugar intake in children and adolescents: results from the I.Family study. Eur J Nutr. 2018. (Epub 2018 Mar 6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1649-6.
- Max Rubner-Institut. Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel des Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz. Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture. 2016. https://www.mri.bund.de/de/service/datenbanken/. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- McCance RA, Widdowson EM. The composition of foods, vol. 6. Cambridge, London: The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Food Standards Agency; 2002.Google Scholar
- Minister of Food and Agriculture. The Norwegian food composition table. 2015. http://www.matportalen.no/. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- National Institute for Health and Welfare. Fineli, national food composition database in Finland. 2016. https://fineli.fi/fineli/en/index. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- Swedish Food Administration. The Swedish food composition database. National Food Agency. 2016. http://www.livsmedelsverket.se/en/food-and-content/naringsamnen/livsmedelsdatabasen/. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- Swiss Society for Nutrition SSN. Swiss food composition table. Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO. 2015. http://www.naehrwertdaten.ch/. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
- Willett WC. Nutritional epidemiology, monographs in epidemiology in biostatistics. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.Google Scholar