Investigating Open Government Data Barriers

A Literature Review and Conceptualization
  • Jonathan CrusoeEmail author
  • Ulf Melin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11020)


When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers.


Open data Open government data OGD Barriers Risks Challenges Impediments Myths Process Literature review 


  1. 1.
    Albano, C.S., Reinhard, N.: Open government data: facilitating and motivating factors for coping with potential barriers in the Brazilian context. In: Janssen, M., Scholl, H.J., Wimmer, Maria A., Bannister, F. (eds.) EGOV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8653, pp. 181–193. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Appelgren, E., Nygren, G.: Data journalism in sweden: introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations. Digit. Journal. 2(3), 394–405 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Attard, J., Orlandi, F., Scerri, S., Auer, S.: A systematic review of open government data initiatives. Gov. Inf. Q. 32(4), 399–418 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barry, E., Bannister, F.: Barriers to open data release: a view from the top. Inf. Polity 19(1–2), 129–152 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beno, M., Figl, K., Umbrich, J., Polleres, A.: Open data hopes and fears: Determining the barriers of open data. In: 2017 Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government (CeDEM), pp. 69–81 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brugger, J., Fraefel, M., Riedl, R., Fehr, H., Schöneck, D., Weissbrod, C.S.: Current barriers to open government data use and visualization by political intermediaries. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government, CeDEM 2016, pp. 219–229 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charalabidis, Y., Alexopoulos, C., Loukis, E.: A taxonomy of open government data research areas and topics. J. Organ. Comput. Electron. Commer. 26(1–2), 41–63 (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Conradie, P., Choenni, S.: Exploring process barriers to release public sector information in local government, p. 5 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conradie, P., Choenni, S.: On the barriers for local government releasing open data. Gov. Inf. Q. 31(SUPPL.1), S10–S17 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cronin, P., Ryan, F., Coughlan, M.: Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Br. J. Nurs. 17(1), 38–43 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davies, T.: Open data, democracy and public sector. Interface, pp. 1–47 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dawes, S.S., Vidiasova, L., Parkhimovich, O.: Planning and designing open government data programs: an ecosystem approach. Gov. Inf. Q. 33(1), 15–27 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hellberg, A.S., Hedström, K.: The story of the sixth myth of open data and open government. Transform. Gov.: People, Process Policy 9(1), 35–51 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hjalmarsson, A., Johannesson, P., Juell-Skielse, G., Rudmark, D.: Beyond innovation contests: a framework of barriers to open innovation of digital services. In: Twenty Second European Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1–15 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hjalmarsson, A., Johansson, N., Rudmark, D.: Mind the gap: exploring stakeholders’ value with open data assessment, vol. 2015, pp. 1314–1323, March 2015Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hogan, M., et al.: Governance, transparency and the collaborative design of open data collaboration platforms: understanding barriers, options, and needs. In: Ojo, A., Millard, J. (eds.) Government 3.0 – Next Generation Government Technology Infrastructure and Services. PAIT, vol. 32, pp. 299–332. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hossain, M.A., Dwivedi, Y.K., Rana, N.P.: State-of-the-art in open data research: insights from existing literature and a research agenda. J. Organ. Comput. Electron. Commer. 26(1–2), 14–40 (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huang, R., Lai, T., Zhou, L.: Proposing a framework of barriers to opening government data in China. Libr. Hi Tech 35(3), 421–438 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaakkola, H., Mäkinen, T., Eteläaho, A.: Open data: opportunities and challenges. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies, CompSysTech 2014, pp. 25–39 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Janssen, M., Charalabidis, Y., Zuiderwijk, A.: Benefits, adoption barriers and myths of open data and open government. Inf. Syst. Manag. 29(4), 258–268 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kassen, M.: A promising phenomenon of open data: a case study of the Chicago open data project. Gov. Inf. Q. 30(4), 508–513 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kassen, M.: Open data in Kazakhstan: incentives, implementation and challenges. Inf. Technol. People 30(2), 301–323 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kucera, J., Chlapek, D.: Benefits and risks of open government data. J. Syst. Integr. 5, 30–41 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lindman, J., Kinnari, T., Rossi, M.: Business roles in the emerging open-data ecosystem. IEEE Softw. 33(5), 54–59 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lundell, B.: e-governance in public sector ict procurement: what is shaping practice in Sweden? Eur. J. ePractice 12, 66–78 (2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin, C.: Barriers to the open government data agenda: Taking a multi-level perspective. Policy Internet 6(3), 217–240 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martin, S., Foulonneau, M., Turki, S., Ihadjadene, M.: Open Data: Barriers, Risks and Opportunities, pp. 301–309 (2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Melin, U.: Challenges and benefits in an open data initiative - a local government case study of myths and realities. In: 15th IFIP Electronic Government and the 8th Electronic Participation Conference (EGOV ePart 2016), vol. 23, pp. 111–122 (2016)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Melin, U., Lindgren, I.: Open government data in an e-service context - managerial and conceptual challenges. In: Americas Conference on Information Systems, vol. 23, pp. 1–10 (2017)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rohunen, A., Markkula, J., Heikkila, M., Heikkila, J.: Open traffic data for future service innovation - addressing the privacy challenges of driving data. J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 9(3), 71–89 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Rosnay, M.D., Janssen, K.: Legal and institutional challenges for opening data across public sectors: towards common policy solutions. J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 9(3), 1–14 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saldaña, J.: The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2015)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Susha, I., Grönlund, A., Janssen, M.: Driving factors of service in- novation using open government data: an exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries. Inf. Polity 20(1), 19–34 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Susha, I., Grönlund, K., Janssen, M.: Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data. Trans. Gov.: People, Process Policy 9(2), 181–206 (2015)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Susha, I., Johannesson, P., Juell-skielse, G.: Open data research in the nordic region: towards a scandinavian approach? Int. Fed. Inf. Process. 9820, 61–73 (2016)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walters, W.H.: Comparative recall and precision of simple and expert searches in google scholar and eight other databases. portal: Libr. Acad. 11(4), 971–1006 (2011)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wirtz, B.W., Piehler, R., Thom-as, M.J., Daiser, P.: Resistance of public personnel to open government: a cognitive theory view of implementation barriers towards open government data. Public Manag. Rev. 18(9), 1335–1364 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yang, T.M., Lo, J., Shiang, J.: To open or not to open? determinants of open government data. J. Inf. Sci. 41(5), 596–612 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M.: Barriers and development directions for the publication and usage of open data: a socio-technical view. In: Gascó-Hernández, M. (ed.) Open Government. PAIT, vol. 4, pp. 115–135. Springer, New York (2014). Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M.: The Negative Effects of Open Government Data - Investigating the Dark Side of Open Data, pp. 147–152 (2014)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M.: Towards decision support for disclosing data: closed or open data? Inf. Polity 20(2–3), 103–117 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M., Choenni, S., Meijer, R., Alibaks, R.S.: Socio-technical impediments of open data. Electron. J. e-Government 10(2), 156–172 (2012)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Andrade, C.: How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian J. Psychiatry 53(2), 172 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jacinto, T., et al.: Doing science: writing conference abstracts. Breathe 10(3), 265–269 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Information SystemsLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations