Advertisement

Ensuring Co-benefits for Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development

  • Risa Smith
  • Oscar Guevara
  • Lauren Wenzel
  • Nigel Dudley
  • Valeria Petrone-Mendoza
  • Martin Cadena
  • Andrew Rhodes
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Significant investments are required by Parties to the three Rio Conventions—Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), as well as the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda), to meet the ambitious goals that countries have agreed to. When the development of national and subnational frameworks to meet global commitments are conducted in isolation, the opportunity is lost to: (1) leverage co-benefits from the same investment; (2) use resources more efficiently; and (3) ensure that one action does not negatively affect another policy priority. For example, investments in greenhouse gas reduction have the potential either to positively impact biodiversity and sustainable development, or to result in unintended negative consequences; chances of positive synergies are greatly increased by cooperation and joint policy, planning and implementation. The challenge now is to learn lessons from the vast and diverse number of approaches being tried around the world and to enhance co-benefits. This paper describes the major inter-linkages between global commitments for conservation and development. It demonstrates the importance of enhancing synergies among global agreements and avoiding unintended and negative consequences, particularly on biodiversity, by providing examples of best practices and describing some of the pitfalls that occur when implementation of one agreement does not explicitly seek to enhance co-benefits with other agreements. In conclusion, the paper presents the case for the central role of nature-based solutions in simultaneously attaining global commitments for biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development.

Keywords

Rio-Conventions Sustainable development goals Biodiversity Co-benefits Climate change Renewable energy Protected areas Marine protected areas Nature-based solutions Natural solutions 

References

  1. BIOPAMA (2016) Development capacity for a protected planet in Africa, the Carribean and the Pacific. IUCN and European Commission Joint Research Centre, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodin B, Santamari C (2016) Updated assessment of progress towards Aichi biodiversity targets 5 and 15. Secretariat Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks TM, Butchart SHM, Cox NA, Heath M, Hilton-Taylor C, Hoffmann M, Kingston N, Rodríguez JP, Stuart SN, Smart J (2015) Harnessing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to track the Aichi targets and sustainable development goals. Biodiversity 16(2–3):157–174.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2015.1075903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cadena M, Virnig A, Tyrrell T, Rhodes A, Ervin J (2017) Resilience thinking: a catalyst to national biodiversity plans. SDG Knowledge Hub. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnipeg, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  5. CBD (2016) XIII/3. Strategic actions to enhance the implementation of the Strategic Plan for BIodiversity 2011–2020 and the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including with respect to mainstreaming and the integration of biodiversity within and across sectors. Secretariat Convention on Biological Diversity, Cancun, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  6. CBD High-Level Panel (2014) Resourcing the Aichi biodiversity targets: an assessment of benefits, investments and resource needs for implementing the strategic plan for biodiversity 2011–2020. Secretariat Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  7. Charity S, Dudley N, Oliviera D, Stolton S (2016) Living Amazon report 2016: a regional approach to conservation in the Amazon. WWF Living Amazon Initiative, Brasilia and QuitoGoogle Scholar
  8. Deemer BR, Harrison JA, Li S, Beaulieu JJ, DelSontro T, Barros N, Bezerra-Neto JF, Powers SM, dos Santos MA, Vonk JA (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis. Bioscience 66(11):949–964.  https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duarte CM, Losada IJ, Mazarrasa I, Hendriks IE, Marbà N (2013) The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nature Climate Change 3(11):961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dudley N, Ali N, MacKinnon K (2017) Natural solutions: protected areas helping to meet the sustainable development goals. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Dudley N, MacKinnon K, Stolton S (2014) The role of protected areas in supplying ten critical ecosystem services in drylands: a review. Biodiversity 15(2–3):178–184.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2014.928790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dudley N, Stolton S, Belokurov A, Krueger L, Lopoukhine N, MacKinnon K, Sandwith T, Sekhran N (2010) Natural solutions: protected areas helping people cope with climate change. IUCN, TNC, UNDP, WCS, World Bank, WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  13. Epple C, Jenkins M, Garcia-Rangel S, Guth M (2016) Managing ecosystems in the context of climate change mitigation: A review of current knowledge and recommendations to support ecosystem-based mitigation actions that look beyond terrestrial forests. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, UNEP, WCMC and German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  14. Executive Secretary of Convention on Biological Diversity (2017) Biodiversity and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  15. Federative Republic of Brazil (FRB) (2016) Intended nationally determined contribution toward achieving the objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Brasilia, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferez APC, Campoe OC, Mendes JCT, Stape JL (2015) Silvicultural opportunities for increasing carbon stock in restoration of Atlantic forests in Brazil. Forest Ecol Manage 350(Supplement C):40–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.04.015
  17. Griscom BW, Adams J, Ellis PW, Houghton RA, Lomax G, Miteva DA, Schlesinger WH, Shoch D, Siikamäki JV, Smith P, Woodbury P, Zganjar C, Blackman A, Campari J, Conant RT, Delgado C, Elias P, Gopalakrishna T, Hamsik MR, Herrero M, Kiesecker J, Landis E, Laestadius L, Leavitt SM, Minnemeyer S, Polasky S, Potapov P, Putz FE, Sanderman J, Silvius M, Wollenberg E, Fargione J (2017) Natural climate solutions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:11645–11650.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harvey CA, Dickson B, Kormos C (2010) Opportunities for achieving biodiversity conservation through REDD. Conserv Lett 3(1):53–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00086.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herr D, Landis E (2016) Coastal blue carbon ecosystems. Opportunities for nationally determined contributions: policy brief. IUCN and TNC, Gland, Switzerland and Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  21. IUCN (2016a) A global standard for the identification of key biodiversity areas, Version 1.0. First edition. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  22. IUCN (2016b) Restoration of forest ecosystems and landscapes as contribution to the Aichi biodiversity targets. Global Forest and Climate Change Program, IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  23. Laffoley D, Dudley N, Jonas H, MacKinnon D, MacKinnon K, Hockings M, Woodley S (2017) An introduction to ‘other effective area-based conservation measures’ under Aichi target 11 of the convention on biological diversity: origin, interpretation and emerging ocean issues. Aquat Conserv Marine Freshw Ecosyst 27(S1):130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laurans Y, Ruat R, Barthelemy P (2016) Counting on nature: how governments plan to rely on ecosystems for their climate strategies. Issue Brief, vol 05/2016, April 2016 edn. Institute du développement durable et des relations internationales, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  25. Leadley P, Alkemade R, Arneth A, Krug C, Popp A, Rondinini C, Stehfest E, Dv Vuuren (2016) Relationship between the Aichi targets and land-based climate mitigation. UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  26. Marrakech Partnership, Global Alliances for Water and Climate, French Water Partnership (2017) International declaration: nature-based solutions for water management under climate change. Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  27. Mead L (2016) Forests and landscape restoration feature at UN biodiversity conference. SDG Knowledge Hub, IISD. http://sdg.iisd.org/news/forests-and-landscape-restoration-feature-at-un-biodiversity-conference/
  28. Melillo JM, Lu X, Kicklighter DW, Reilly JM, Cai Y, Sokolov AP (2016) Protected areas’ role in climate-change mitigation. Ambio 45(2):133–145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0693-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nature Needs Half (2017) Nature needs half. Wild Foundation. http://natureneedshalf.org/
  30. OECD (2016) Better policies for sustainable development 2016: A New Framework for Policy Coherence. OECD, Paris, France.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264256996-en
  31. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Carbon Program (2017) A Primer on pH. NOAA Pacific Environmental Laboratory. https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/A+primer+on+pH
  32. Peschel T (2010) Solar parks—opportunities for biodiversity. German Renewable Energies Agency, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  33. Peterson C (2011) Integrating biodiversity into spatial planning and environmental assessment. BotswanaGoogle Scholar
  34. Quéré CL, Moriarty R, Andrew RM, Peters GP, Ciais P, Friedlingstein P, Jones SD, Sitch S, Tans P, Arneth A (2014) Global carbon budget. Earth Syst Sci Data Discuss 7:521–610Google Scholar
  35. REDPARQUES (2015a) About REDPARQUES. REDPARQUES. http://redparques.com/?lang=en. Accessed 15 Dec 2017
  36. REDPARQUES (2015b) Declaration by the Latin American network for technical cooperation on national parks, other protected areas, and wild flora and fauna (REDPARQUES) to the 21st conference of the parties (cop) of the united nations framework convention on climate change. REDPARQUES, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  37. Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF (2017) World scientists’ warning to humanity: a second notice. BioScience 1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix125
  38. Roberts CM, O’Leary BC, McCauley DJ, Cury PM, Duarte CM, Lubchenco J, Pauly D, Saenz-Arroyo A, Sumaila UR, Wilson RW, Worm B, Castilla JC (2017) Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(24):6167–6175.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701262114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rockström J, Gaffney O, Rogelj J, Meinshausen M, Nakicenovic N, Schellnhuber HJ (2017) A roadmap for rapid decarbonization. Science 355(6331):1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sayer J, Sunderland T, Ghazoul J, Pfund J-L, Sheil D, Meijaard E, Venter M, Boedhihartono AK, Day M, Garcia C (2013) Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(21):8349–8356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Scherer L, Pfister S (2016) Hydropower’s biogenic carbon footprint. PLoS ONE 11(9):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmidt-Traub G (2015) Investment needs to achieve the sustainable development goals—summary for policymakers. Sustain Dev Solut Netw, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. Schultz M, Tyrrell TD, Ebenhard T (2016) The 2030 agenda and ecosystems—a discussion paper on the links between Aichi biodiversity targets and the sustainable development goals. SwedBio at Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  44. Science for Environmental Policy (2015) Wind and solar energy and nature conservation. Future Brief 9. Science Communication Unit, BristolGoogle Scholar
  45. Secretariat Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) AIchi biodiversity targets. Secretariat Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  46. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2014) Global biodiversity outlook 4: a mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the strategic plan for biodiversity 2011–2020. Convention on biological diversity, Montreal, Canada. Doi: ISBN- 92-9225-539-8Google Scholar
  47. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2016) Decisions XIII/2, paragraph 9 (III): Progress towards the achievement of Aichi biodiversity targets 11 and 12. Decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, XIII/2. Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  48. Senior MJM, Brown E, Villalpando P, Hill JK (2015) Increasing the scientific evidence base in the “high conservation value” (HCV) approach for biodiversity conservation in managed tropical landscapes. Conserv Lett 8(5):361–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Society for Ecological Restoration (2012) Available guideance and guidelines on ecosystem restoration. Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  50. Steiner A (2017) Investing in innovative nature-based solutions. UNDPGoogle Scholar
  51. Stern N (2015) Climate negotiations, sustainable development and growth—speech. London School of Economics and Political Science, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/publication/negociations-climatiques-developpement-durable-et-croissance/. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  52. Suarez C, Prussman CL, Abud M, Guevara O, Vergara A, Zuniga LA, Gorricho J, Naranjo LG (2015) Vulnerability analysis of the Amazon Biome and its protected areasGoogle Scholar
  53. The Blue Carbon Initiative (2017) The blue carbon initiative. IUCN, CI, IOC-UNESCO. http://thebluecarboninitiative.org/. Accessed 19 Dec 2017
  54. The Economist (2017) Sucking up carbon: Greenhouse gases must be scrubbed from the air. The Economist (Nov 16)Google Scholar
  55. Thompson A (2014) Major greenhouse gas reductions needed by 2050: IPCC. Climate Central. http://www.climatecentral.org/news/major-greenhouse-gas-reductions-needed-to-curtail-climate-change-ipcc-17300. Accessed 15 Nov 2017
  56. Tubb R (2017) P&GJ’s 2017 Worldwide pipeline construction report. Pipeline Gas J 244(1)Google Scholar
  57. Turner WR, Brandon K, Brooks TM, Gascon C, Gibbs HK, Lawrence KS, Mittermeier RA, Selig ER (2012) Global biodiversity conservation and the alleviation of poverty. Bioscience 62(1):85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. UNEP-WCMC, IUCN (2016) Protected planet report. Cambridge UK and Gland SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  59. UNFCCC (2014) Paris agreement: essential elements. (Oct 23)Google Scholar
  60. UNFCCC (2015) Paris agreement. UNFCCC, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  61. United Nations (2015) Sustainable development goals: 17 goals to transform the world. UN Web Services Section. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  62. US Environmental Protection Agency (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle 2017 (Dec 18)Google Scholar
  63. USGS (2017) National gap analysis project USGS. https://gapanalysis.usgs.gov/data/. Accessed 16 Dec 2017
  64. Watts J (2017) For us, the land is sacred: on the road with the defenders of the world’s forests. The GuardianGoogle Scholar
  65. World Bank (2016) Poverty and shared prosperity: taking on inequality. License: creative commons attribution CC BY 3.01 IGO, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0958-3

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risa Smith
    • 1
  • Oscar Guevara
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lauren Wenzel
    • 4
  • Nigel Dudley
    • 5
    • 6
  • Valeria Petrone-Mendoza
    • 7
  • Martin Cadena
    • 8
  • Andrew Rhodes
    • 9
  1. 1.IUCN, World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA)Galiano IslandCanada
  2. 2.WWFBogotáColombia
  3. 3.IUCN, World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA)GlandSwitzerland
  4. 4.IUCN, World Commission on Protected AreasSilver SpringUSA
  5. 5.Equilibrium ResearchGlandSwitzerland
  6. 6.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  7. 7.Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales ProtegidasMexico CityMexico
  8. 8.UNDPMexico CityMexico
  9. 9.Pronatura MexicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations