Methods of Endometrial Evaluation

  • Tricia A. Murdock
  • Emanuela F. T. Veras
  • Robert J. Kurman
  • Michael T. Mazur


The clinical decision to perform endometrial sampling is dependent on medical history, physical examination, laboratory data, imaging studies, and patient age. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) may be secondary to structural lesions including polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, or malignancy and hyperplasia or nonstructural lesions including coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, or not yet specified, which together comprise the acronym PALM-COEIN (see Chap.  1 for AUB classification). A transvaginal ultrasound is often performed first to determine the presence of a structural lesion. However, the first-line method of evaluation (imaging versus tissue sampling) depends on the clinical suspicion for the diagnoses listed above.


Endometrial evaluation Endometrial sampling techniques Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage Hysteroscopy and curettage Ultrasound Saline infusion sonohysterography 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tricia A. Murdock
    • 1
  • Emanuela F. T. Veras
    • 1
  • Robert J. Kurman
    • 1
  • Michael T. Mazur
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyThe Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineState University of New York Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA

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