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Musculoskeletal Physiology, Disability, and Exercise

  • David HollarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

For exercise and health to be maximized for people living with mobility limitations, the external environment must be modified. However, at the same time, human physiology must be carefully addressed, specifically neuroendocrine, muscular, and bone development and their maintenance/optimal functioning. Both the external and internal environments are unique to each individual person and their situation with respect to ability/disability. With respect to internal physiology and its impact upon functioning, we must understand that the human body is a complex system that consists of interacting subsystems that positively and negatively regulate each other. Furthermore, cells and tissues both cooperate and compete with one another under these regulatory systems in an ecological fashion that is quite similar to the external environments of animals, plants, and microbes for a given biome. Exercise and health, besides maintaining body structures and preventing obesity, involve natural physiological controls whose effects impact every aspect of human health. Enhancing bone, muscle, and neuroendocrine functioning can benefit the functioning of people living with mobility limitations so that they can live independent, healthy lives.

Abbreviations

BMP

Bone morphogenetic proteins

BRU

Bone remodeling unit

CD

Cluster of differentiation (many types of immune cell membrane glycoproteins)

CNTF

Ciliary neurotrophic factor

CRP

C-reactive protein

FAM5C

Family with sequence similarity 5, member C myokine

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GDF

Growth differentiation factor

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

HPA

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

ICF

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

IFN

Interferon

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

MCP

Monocyte chemoattractant protein

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MIP

Macrophage inflammatory protein

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

NAP

Nucleosome assembly protein

NMES

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RANTES

Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted

SCI

Spinal cord injury

SMAD

Signaling molecule for TGF-beta receptor molecules

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Th1

Cell-mediated (pro-inflammatory) immunity

Th2

Humoral- or antibody-mediated immunity

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Wnt

Wingless integration proto-oncogene

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health AdministrationPfeiffer UniversityMisenheimerUSA

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