Determining whether the patient has an oxygenation problem, ventilation problem, or both is the first step in addressing respiratory failure. Many causes of respiratory failure can be well-managed noninvasively. High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is an excellent means of supporting hypoxemic patients. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is one of the most important advances in the care of patients in respiratory failure, especially for patients with respiratory failure from COPD and congestive heart failure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure are the two forms of NIPPV.
- Oxygen therapy
- High flow nasal cannula
- Noninvasive ventilation
- Positive pressure ventilation
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
- Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP)