• Michael K. Bergman


Peirce posited a “third grade of clearness of apprehension” to better understand a topic at hand, a part of his pragmatic maxim. This book has attempted to adhere to this ‘practionary’ form, the first attempt to so apply Peirce to a single concept. As first stated, knowledge representation is a field of artificial intelligence dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks. In Part I, we set the context by discussing the nature of information, knowledge, and representation, as well as the challenges and opportunities facing KR. In Part II we provided a speculative grammar for KR, including the structural role of the universal categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness, and the terminology, languages, logic, and models for knowledge representation. That foundation lets us discuss existing frameworks and KR constructs in typologies and knowledge graphs in Part III. In Part IV, we used these components to build KR and knowledge management systems, including what to construct and what to test and best practices. With a working system in hand, we were then able in Part V to discuss 15 possible application areas of a Peircean approach to KR in breadth and depth. Throughout, we provided evidence where Peirce’s ideas may offer unique and valuable insights into semantic technologies, knowledge representation, and information science. There are enticing connections to very topical fields in computer science. We need to better understand the nature of signs and representation in the use of semantic technologies.


Pragmatism Knowledge representation Semantic technologies Information science 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Bergman
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognonto CorporationCoralvilleUSA

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