Advertisement

Strategic Planning of Short Sea Shipping Within Maritime Clusters

  • Stratos Papadimitriou
  • Dimitrios V. Lyridis
  • Ioannis G. Koliousis
  • Vangelis Tsioumas
  • Eleftherios Sdoukopoulos
  • Peter J. Stavroulakis
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Maritime Economics book series (PSME)

Abstract

Industry clusters provide a novel framework for interpreting industries. They offer a penetrating understanding as to the rudiments of economic activity, within a region. There has been a substantial drive in recent years, to research and support the cluster concept, though this process is far from delivering an understanding without caveats and restrictions. Clusters can provide valuable insight within industries, as they pertain to eventualities that harbour collective health, for many organizations. This instance summates the basic strength, but also, the elementary weakness of the concept. At the same time, caution should be applied, as the construct is not straightforward, and is many times left to selective interpretation. This chapter aims at investigating the complementarities of strategic planning of short sea shipping within a maritime cluster perspective.

Keywords

Industry cluster Strategic management Short sea shipping cluster 

References

  1. Amdam, R.P., and O. Bjarnar. 2015. Globalization and the development of industrial clusters: Comparing two Norwegian clusters, 1900–2010. Business History Review 894: 693–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arof, A.M., and R. Nair. 2017. The identification of key success factors for interstate Ro-Ro short sea shipping in Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines: A Delphi approach. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 9 (3): 261–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baindur, D., and J.M. Viegas. 2012. Success factors for developing viable motorways of the sea projects in Europe. Logistics Research 4 (3–4): 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baños, J. F., L. Valdés, E. Del Valle, and E. Zapico. 2018. Economic importance of the motorways of the sea for tourism: The experience of the route Nantes–Gijón. Maritime Economics and Logistics 20: 300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batur, T. 2010. Maritime clusterisation and cluster facilitators in the European Union [Pomorska klasterizacija i cimbenici razvitka u Europskoj Uniji]. Nase More 57 (5–6): 199–214.Google Scholar
  6. Bendall, H.B., and M.R. Brooks. 2011. Short sea shipping: Lessons for or from Australia. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 3 (4): 384–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benito, G.R.G., E. Berger, M. De La Forest, and J. Shum. 2003. A cluster analysis of the maritime sector in Norway. International Journal of Transport Management 14: 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergantino, A., S. Bolis, and C. Canali. 2006. A methodological framework to analyse the market opportunities of short sea shipping: The adaptive stated preference approach. In Towards better performing transport networks, 285–304. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Brandt, A., M.C. Dickow, and C. Drangmeister. 2010. Development potentials and networks of maritime clusters in Germany [Entwicklungspotenziale und Netzwerkbeziehungen maritimer Cluster in Deutschland]. Zeitschrift fur Wirtschaftsgeographie 54 (3–4): 238–253.Google Scholar
  10. Braunmüller, K. 1997. Communication strategies in the area of the hanseatic league: The approach by semi-communication. Multilingua 16 (4): 365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brett, V., and M. Roe. 2010. The potential for the clustering of the maritime transport sector in the greater Dublin region. Maritime Policy and Management 371: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, M.R., S.M. Puckett, D.A. Hensher, and A. Sammons. 2012. Understanding mode choice decisions: A study of Australian freight shippers. Maritime Economics and Logistics 14 (3): 274–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casaca, A.C.P., and P.B. Marlow. 2007. The impact of the trans-European transport networks on the development of short sea shipping. Maritime Economics and Logistics 9 (4): 302–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casaca, A.C.P., S. Carvalho, and M. Oliveira. 2013. Improving port of Sines competitiveness. A subjective benchmarking approach. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 5 (2): 174–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casaca, A.C.P., C.B. Galvão, L.T. Robles, and S.S. Cutrim. 2017. Domestic short sea shipping services in Brazil: Competition by enhancing logistics integration. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 9 (3): 280–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castejón Arqued, R. 1996. Commercial ports in Spain. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 87 (4): 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chainas, K. 2017. A dynamic routing system for short sea shipping following ship immobilization. International Journal of Business and Systems Research 11 (1–2): 198–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang, Y.-C. 2011. Maritime clusters: What can be learnt from the south west of England. Ocean and Coastal Management 54 (6): 488–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chhetri, P., T. Butcher, and B. Corbitt. 2014. Characterising spatial logistics employment clusters. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management 443: 221–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chung, T.W. 2016. A study on logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries using the Porter’s diamond model. Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics 324: 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colbourne, B. 2006. St. John’s ocean technology cluster: Can government make it so? Canadian Public Administration 491: 46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Langen, P.W. 2002. Clustering and performance: The case of maritime clustering in the Netherlands. Maritime Policy and Management 293: 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deng, A.-M., H.F. Zhong, H.L. Li, and J. Wang. 2013. Review of researches on logistics industry clusters sustainable development. In International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation: Core Areas of Industrial Engineering, IEMI 2012 – Proceedings, 1227–1235.Google Scholar
  24. Doloreux, D. 2017. What is a maritime cluster? Marine Policy 83: 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doloreux, D., and Y. Melançon. 2006. The ambitious wager of Quebec’s maritime cluster: Current situation and public policies [Le pari ambitieux du cluster maritime du Québec: État de la situation et politiques publiques]. Geographie Economie Societe 8 (4): 467–480.Google Scholar
  26. Doloreux, D., and R. Shearmur. 2009. Maritime clusters in diverse regional contexts: The case of Canada. Marine Policy 33 (3): 520–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doloreux, D., R. Shearmur, and D. Figueiredo. 2016. Québec’ coastal maritime cluster: Its impact on regional economic development, 2001–2011. Marine Policy 71: 201–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elsner, W. 2010. Regional service clusters and networks. Two approaches to empirical identification and development: The case of logistics in the German port city-states Hamburg and Bremen. International Review of Applied Economics 241: 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fafaliou, I., M. Lekakou, and I. Theotokas. 2006. Is the European shipping industry aware of corporate social responsibility? The case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies. Marine Policy 30 (4): 412–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fernández-Macho, J., A. Murillas, A. Ansuategi, M. Escapa, C. Gallastegui, P. González, R. Prellezo, and J. Virto. 2015. Measuring the maritime economy: Spain in the European Atlantic arc. Marine Policy 60: 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fink, A. 2011. Under what conditions may social contracts arise? Evidence from the Hanseatic league. Constitutional Political Economy 22 (2): 173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———. 2012. The Hanseatic league and the concept of functional overlapping competing jurisdictions. Kyklos 65 (2): 194–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fløysand, A., S.E. Jakobsen, and O. Bjarnar. 2012. The dynamism of clustering: Interweaving material and discursive processes. Geoforum 435: 948–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grosso, M., A.R. Lynce, A. Silla, and G.K. Vaggelas. 2010. Short sea shipping, intermodality and parameters influencing pricing policies: The Mediterranean case. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking 11 (1): 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halse, L.L. 2017. The evolution and transformation of industrial clusters: A conceptual model. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management 31 (1–3): 176–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hilmola, O.-P., H. Lorentz, and D.L. Rhoades. 2015. New environmental demands and the future of the Helsinki-Tallinn freight route. Maritime Economics and Logistics 17 (2): 198–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jaffee, D. 2015. A deeper channel floats all boats: The port economy as urban growth engine. Environment and Planning A 474: 783–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jansson, K. 2011. An innovation and engineering maturity model for marine industry networks. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 362 AICT, 253–260.Google Scholar
  39. Jensen, L.-M. 2012. Humanitarian cluster leads: Lessons from 4PLs. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management 22: 148–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jenssen, J.I. 2003. Innovation, capabilities and competitive advantage in Norwegian shipping. Maritime Policy and Management 302: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jin, J.-C., and H. Zhen. 2013. Research on the maritime cluster competition based on ecological niche theory. Jiaotong Yunshu Xitong Gongcheng Yu Xinxi/Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology 13 (6): 32–36.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, J., and W. Percy. 1970. The age of recovery – The fifteenth century. Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Johnson, H., M. Johansson, and K. Andersson. 2014. Barriers to improving energy efficiency in short sea shipping: An action research case study. Journal of Cleaner Production 66: 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Juchelka, R., and J. Brenienek. 2016. Evaluation of impacts of logistics clusters in the corridor Rotterdam-genoa. Contributions to Economics 207: 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kapros, S., and C. Panou. 2007. Chapter 10 coastal shipping and Intermodality in Greece: The weak link. Research in Transportation Economics 21: 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Keller, J., C. Markmann, and H.A. von der Gracht. 2015. Foresight support systems to facilitate regional innovations: A conceptualization case for a German logistics cluster. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 97: 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Koliousis, I., P. Koliousis, and S. Papadimitriou. 2013. Estimating the impact of road transport deregulation in short sea shipping: Experience from deregulation in the European Union. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 5 (4–5): 500–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koliousis, I.G., S. Papadimitriou, E. Riza, P.J. Stavroulakis, and V. Tsioumas. 2017. Strategy, policy, and the formulation of maritime cluster typologies. Marine Policy 86: 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2018a. Scarcity theory and maritime clusters: From paradox to modelling. Marine Policy 93: 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koliousis, I.G., S. Papadimitriou, P.J. Stavroulakis, and V. Tsioumas. 2018b. The management of change within maritime clusters. FME Transactions 46 (3): 360–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotowska, I. 2015. The role of ferry and Ro-Ro shipping in sustainable development of transport. Review of Economic Perspectives 15 (1): 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. ———. 2016. Method of assessing the role of short sea shipping in sustainable development of transport. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 8 (6): 687–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kroes, J.R., Y. Chen, and P. Mangiameli. 2013. Estimating demand for container freight service at the port of Davisville. Interfaces 43 (2): 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laaksonen, E., and H. Mäkinen. 2013. The competitiveness of the maritime clusters in the Baltic sea region: Key challenges from the Finnish perspective. Journal of East-West Business 19 (1–2): 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Le-Griffin, H.D., and M.T. Griffin. 2010. Managing empty container flows through short sea shipping and regional port systems. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 2 (1): 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mack, K. 2007. When seafaring is or was a calling: Norwegian seafarers’ career experiences. Maritime Policy and Management 344: 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mäkinen, H., E. Laaksonen, and K. Liuhto. 2014. Energy and maritime clusters in the eastern Baltic sea region: Competitiveness through international inter-cluster cooperation? In Geo-Regional Competitiveness in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltic Countries, and Russia: 184–210. IGI Global, USA.Google Scholar
  58. Makkonen, T., T. Inkinen, and J. Saarni. 2013. Innovation types in the Finnish maritime cluster. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 121: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Martin, R., and P. Sunley. 2003. Deconstructing clusters: Chaotic concept or policy panacea? Journal of Economic Geography 3 (1): 5–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martínez-López, A., J. Kronbak, and L. Jiang. 2015a. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea region: The Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 7 (4): 494–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martínez-López, A., P.C. Sobrino, and L.C. Santos. 2015b. Definition of optimal fleets for sea motorways: The case of France and Spain on the Atlantic coast. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 7 (1): 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martínez-López, A., P.C. Sobrino, and M.M. González. 2016. Influence of external costs on the optimisation of container fleets by operating under motorways of the sea conditions. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 8 (6): 653–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Md Arof, A. 2015. Determinants for a feasible short sea shipping: Lessons from Europe for ASEAN. Asian Social Science 11 (15): 229–238.Google Scholar
  64. Miguel, A. 2013. Unaccompanied transport as a strategy for international road hauliers in Ro-Ro short sea shipping. Maritime Economics and Logistics 15 (3): 374–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mihaela Bukuaš Skočí, B.U.Š., and N. Jolič. 2010. Functional analysis of republic of Croatia for short sea shipping development. Promet – Traffic – Traffico 22 (1): 53–63.Google Scholar
  66. Mitroussi, K. 2008. Employment of seafarers in the EU context: Challenges and opportunities. Marine Policy 326: 1043–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Monteiro, P.V. 2016. The role of knowledge-intensive service activities on inducing innovation in co-opetition strategies: Lessons from the maritime cluster of the Algarve region. International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development 151: 78–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Monteiro, P., T. de Noronha, and P. Neto. 2013. A differentiation framework for maritime clusters: Comparisons across Europe. Sustainability (Switzerland) 5 (9): 4076–4105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Novo-Corti, I., and F. González-Laxe. 2009. Maritime transport and trade: The impact of European transport policy. An overview of maritime freight transport patterns. European Research Studies Journal 12 (1): 131–147.Google Scholar
  70. Nowakowska-Grunt, J., D. Jelonek, and H. Koscielniak. 2014. Logistics’ clusters as a part of regional policy in Poland. In 2014 International Conference on Advanced Logistics and Transport, ICALT 2014, art. no. 6866313, 206–210.Google Scholar
  71. OECD. 2003. Geographic concentration and territorial disparity in OECD countries. www.oecd.org/regional/regional-policy/15179757.DOC.
  72. Ortega, C., C. Nogueira, and H. Pinto. 2013. Sea and littoral localities’ economy: Exploring potentialities for a maritime cluster – An integrated analysis of Huelva, Spain and Algarve, Portugal. Journal of Maritime Research 102: 35–42.Google Scholar
  73. Özer, D., N. Nikitakos, A.G. Cerit, E.Z. Oral, and E.G. Stratakos. 2005. Analysis of the short sea shipping potential between Turkey and the Greek Islands. 1st International Symposium on Ship Operations, Management and Economics 2005, 43–53.Google Scholar
  74. Pagano, A., G. Wang, O. Sánchez, R. Ungo, and E. Tapiero. 2016. The impact of the Panama Canal expansion on Panama’s maritime cluster. Maritime Policy and Management 43 (2): 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Paixão Casaca, A.C. 2008. Motorway of the sea port requirements: The viewpoint of port authorities. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications 11 (4): 279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Paixão, A.C., and P.B. Marlow. 2002. Strengths and weaknesses of short sea shipping. Marine Policy 26 (3): 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pinto, H., and A.R. Cruz. 2012. Structuring a knowledge-based maritime cluster: Contributions of network analysis in a tourism region. Revista de Estudios Regionales (95): 101–118.Google Scholar
  78. Pinto, H., A.R. Cruz, and C. Combe. 2015. Cooperation and the emergence of maritime clusters in the Atlantic: Analysis and implications of innovation and human capital for blue growth. Marine Policy 57: 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Porter, M.E. 2000. Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly 14 (1): 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prause, G. 2014. Sustainable development of logistics clusters in green transport corridors. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues 41: 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Psaraftis, H.N. 2005. EU ports policy: Where do we go from here? Maritime Economics and Logistics 7 (1): 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Psaraftis, H.N., and C.A. Kontovas. 2011. Ship emissions, costs and their tradeoffs. In Advances in maritime logistics and supply chain systems, 257–295. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Puckett, S.M., D.A. Hensher, M.R. Brooks, and V. Trifts. 2011. Preferences for alternative short sea shipping opportunities. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 47 (2): 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rivera, L., Y. Sheffi, and R. Welsch. 2014. Logistics agglomeration in the US. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 59: 222–238.Google Scholar
  85. Rivera, L., D. Gligor, and Y. Sheffi. 2016a. The benefits of logistics clustering. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management 463: 242–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rivera, L., Y. Sheffi, and D. Knoppen. 2016b. Logistics clusters: The impact of further agglomeration, training and firm size on collaboration and value added services. International Journal of Production Economics 179: 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Russo, F., G. Musolino, and V. Assumma. 2016. Competition between ro-ro and lo-lo services in short sea shipping market: The case of Mediterranean countries. Research in Transportation Business and Management 19: 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Salvador, R. 2014. Maritime clusters evolution. The (not so) strange case of the Portuguese maritime cluster. Journal of Maritime Research 11: 53–59.Google Scholar
  89. Salvador, R., A. Simões, and C. Guedes Soares. 2016. The economic features, internal structure and strategy of the emerging Portuguese maritime cluster. Ocean and Coastal Management 129: 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sanchez Rodrigues, V., S. Pettit, I. Harris, A. Beresford, M. Piecyk, Z. Yang, and A. Ng. 2015. UK supply chain carbon mitigation strategies using alternative ports and multimodal freight transport operations. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 78: 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schøyen, H., and S. Bråthen. 2015. Measuring and improving operational energy efficiency in short sea container shipping. Research in Transportation Business and Management 17: 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Seoane, M.J.F., F.G. Laxe, and C.P. Montes. 2017. Short sea shipping in the Atlantic Arc: A spatial shift-share approach. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 9 (3): 323–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sheffi, Y. 2013. Logistics-intensive clusters: Global competitiveness and regional growth. International Series in Operations Research and Management Science 181: 463–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shinohara, M. 2010. Maritime cluster of Japan: Implications for the cluster formation policies. Maritime Policy and Management 374: 377–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sornn-Friese, H., and M.J. Lversen. 2014. The establishment of the Danish International Ship Register DIS and its connections to the maritime duster. International Journal of Maritime History 261: 82–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stavroulakis, P.J., and S. Papadimitriou. 2016. The strategic factors shaping competitiveness for maritime clusters. Research in Transportation Business and Management 19: 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. ———. 2017. Situation analysis forecasting: The case of European maritime clusters. Maritime Policy and Management 44 (06): 779–789.Google Scholar
  98. Styhre, L. 2009. Strategies for capacity utilisation in short sea shipping. Maritime Economics and Logistics 11 (4): 418–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Suárez-Alemán, A., L. Trujillo, and K.P.B. Cullinane. 2014. Time at ports in short sea shipping: When timing is crucial. Maritime Economics and Logistics 16 (4): 399–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Trujillo, L., and B. Tovar. 2007. The European port industry: An analysis of its economic efficiency. Maritime Economics and Logistics 9 (2): 148–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Trupac, I. 2008. More competitiveness for Slovenia and its companies through the Slovenian transport logistics cluster. Promet – Traffic – Traffico 201: 19–30.Google Scholar
  102. Tzannatos, E.S. 2005. Technical reliability of the Greek coastal passenger fleet. Marine Policy 29 (1): 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Val, S., and N. Blázquez. 2009. Analysis of trans-Pyrenean railway bottlenecks. International Journal of Procurement Management 2 (4): 388–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valadas-Monteiro, P. 2014. General insights of the Portuguese maritime economy and particularly of the algarve region: Contributing towards a strategic vision. Journal of Maritime Research 11: 3–9.Google Scholar
  105. Wijnolst, N., and F.A.J. Waals. 2005. European short sea fleet renewal: Opportunities for shipowners and shipyards. In 1st International Symposium on Ship Operations, Management and Economics 2005, 54–62.Google Scholar
  106. Zagkas, V.K., and D.V. Lyridis. 2011. A framework for modelling and benchmarking maritime clusters: An application to the maritime cluster of Piraeus. In Advances in maritime logistics and supply chain systems, 131–156. World Scientific, Singapore.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhang, W., and J.S.L. Lam. 2013. Maritime cluster evolution based on symbiosis theory and Lotka-Volterra model. Maritime Policy and Management 402: 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. ———. 2017. An empirical analysis of maritime cluster evolution from the port development perspective – Cases of London and Hong Kong. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 105: 219–232.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stratos Papadimitriou
    • 1
  • Dimitrios V. Lyridis
    • 2
  • Ioannis G. Koliousis
    • 3
  • Vangelis Tsioumas
    • 4
  • Eleftherios Sdoukopoulos
    • 1
  • Peter J. Stavroulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PiraeusPiraeusGreece
  2. 2.National Technical University of AthensZografouGreece
  3. 3.Coventry UniversityCoventryUK
  4. 4.The American College of GreeceAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations