Group Formation in CSCL: A Review of the State of the Art

  • Simone BorgesEmail author
  • Riichiro Mizoguchi
  • Ig Ibert Bittencourt
  • Seiji Isotani
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 832)


Group formation in CSCL refers to the process of adequate selection and grouping of students to create scenarios and situations that help the learning to occur more smoothly. Objective: this paper presents a systematic mapping of the literature about group formation for CSCL intended to characterize the state of the art in the field as well as identifying gaps and opportunities for further re-search. Method: We designed a protocol to collect and analyze the literature on group formation in CSCL and carried it out using a rigorous systematic re-view/mapping method established in the literature. Initially, we collected 3571 papers about CSCL that had the potential to provide important information about research on group formation. After initial screening, 423 were recognized as papers related to group formation. After a careful analysis, 106 papers met the necessary requirements/criteria defined in our protocol. Results: each of the 106 papers was categorized according to their contributions using information extracted from this systematic mapping, and a framework to classify research in the field is proposed. Conclusions: this work provides an extensive analysis of the literature on group formation for CSCL offering an overview of the state of the art as well as opportunities for future research. We also create an infographic to summarize our findings, available at


Systematic mapping Group formation Literature review Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of São PauloSão CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Japan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyNomi, KanazawaJapan
  3. 3.Federal University of AlagoasMaceióBrazil

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