Chronic Kidney Disease in the Primary Care Setting: Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Management

  • Jay I. Lakkis
  • Matthew WeirEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


This chapter provides a clinical perspective on how the kidney can be used as a sentinel for cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and, perhaps, as a means of measuring therapeutic success for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To accomplish these goals, we will first provide some background about the relationship between chronic kidney disease and CVD. Next, we will discuss the value of estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as a better measure of overall kidney function as opposed to simply using a serum creatinine. In addition, we will also focus on the importance of residual albuminuria or proteinuria and its implications for predicting CVD. These observations will set the stage for assessing appropriate blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose goals for patients, and the pharmacologic means of attaining these goals. Finally, we will describe non-traditional CVD risk factors unique to the CKD population and recommend some therapeutic strategies whenever possible.


Chronic kidney disease Cardiovascular disease Microalbuminuria Estimated glomerular filtration rate Creatinine clearance Nephropathy Proteinuria Albuminuria End-stage renal disease 


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, global public health crisis. World Health Day 2013. [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2013. p. 1–39. Available from:
  2. 2.
    Nwankwo T, Yoon SS, Burt V, Gu Q. Hypertension among adults in the United States: National Health and nutrition examination survey, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;133:1–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parikh NI, Hwang S-J, Larson MG, Meigs JB, Levy D, Fox CS. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(17):1884–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G, Brancati FL, Levey AS, Jones C, et al. Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: findings from the third National Health and nutrition examination survey (1988-1994). Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(9):1207–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muntner P, Anderson A, Charleston J, Chen Z, Ford V, Makos G, et al. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in adults with CKD: results from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2010;55(3):441–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(9suppl 1):S1–S266.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saran R, Li Y, Robinson B, Abbott KC, Agodoa LY, Ayanian J, Bragg-Gresham J, Balkrishnan R, Chen JL, Cope E, Eggers PW, Gillen D, Gipson D, Hailpern SM, Hall YN, He K, Herman W, Heung M, Hirth RA, Hutton D, Jacobsen SJ, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kovesdy CP, Lu Y, Molnar MZ, Morgenstern H, Nallamothu B, Nguyen DV, O'Hare AM, Plattner B, Pisoni R, Port FK, Rao P, Rhee CM, Sakhuja A, Schaubel DE, Selewski DT, Shahinian V, Sim JJ, Song P, Streja E, Kurella Tamura M, Tentori F, White S, Woodside K, Hirth RA. US Renal data system 2015 annual data report: epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;67(3 Supplement 1):S1–434.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. Wolrd Health Day 2016. Geneva; 2016 p. 1–86.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report: estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2014.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(15):1127–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Afkarian M, Zelnick LR, Hall YN, Heagerty PJ, Tuttle K, Weiss NS, et al. Clinical manifestations of kidney disease among US adults with diabetes, 1988-2014. JAMA. 2016;316(6):602–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA, Yoon SS. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: National Health and nutrition examination survey, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;132:1–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29–322.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kasiske BL. Hyperlipidemia in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 1998;32(5 Suppl 3):S142–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking: early release of selected estimates based on data from the national health interview survey, 2014. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; June 2015.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Collaboration. Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Aug;2(8):634–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2015: with special feature on racial and ethnic health disparities. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2016.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leisure-time physical activity: early release of selected estimates based on data from the national health interview survey, 2014. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; June 2015.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National chronic kidney disease fact sheet: general information and national estimates on chronic kidney disease in the United States, 2014. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chronic Kidney Disease [Internet]. World Kidney Day. [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from:
  21. 21.
    Chapter 1: definition and classification of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2013;3(1):19–62. PMID: 25018975 PMCID: PMC4089693.
  22. 22.
    Ishani A, Grandits GA, Grimm RH, Svendsen KH, Collins AJ, Prineas RJ, et al. Association of single measurements of dipstick proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hematocrit with 25-year incidence of end-stage renal disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(5):1444–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Mancini M, Zanchetti A, Lombardi C, De Santo NG. Low glomerular filtration in the population: prevalence, associated disorders, and awareness. Kidney Int. 2006;70(4):800–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grams ME, Chow EKH, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2013;62(2):245–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cooper BA, Branley P, Bulfone L, Collins JF, Craig JC, Fraenkel MB, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of early versus late initiation of dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(7):609–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hallan SI, Coresh J, Astor BC, Asberg A, Powe NR, Romundstad S, et al. International comparison of the relationship of chronic kidney disease prevalence and ESRD risk. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(8):2275–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patel UD, Young EW, Ojo AO, Hayward RA. CKD progression and mortality among older patients with diabetes. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2005;46(3):406–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Matsushita K, Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M, Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH, et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate. JAMA. 2012;307(18):1941–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measured GFR as a confirmatory test for estimated GFR. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(11):2305–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fashuyi SA. The pattern of human intestinal helminth infections in farming communities in different parts of Ondo state, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 1992;11(1):13–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shidham G, Hebert LA. Timed urine collections are not needed to measure urine protein excretion in clinical practice. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2006;47(1):8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Foley RN, Wang C, Collins AJ. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles and kidney function stage in the US general population: the NHANES III study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(10):1270–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fox CS, Matsushita K, Woodward M, Bilo HJG, Chalmers J, Heerspink HJL, et al. Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis. Lancet Lond Engl. 2012;380(9854):1662–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heerspink HJL, Kröpelin TF, Hoekman J, de Zeeuw D. Reducing albuminuria as surrogate endpoint (REASSURE) consortium. Drug-induced reduction in albuminuria is associated with subsequent Renoprotection: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26(8):2055–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hallan S, Astor B, Romundstad S, Aasarød K, Kvenild K, Coresh J. Association of kidney function and albuminuria with cardiovascular mortality in older vs younger individuals: the HUNT II study. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(22):2490–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium, Matsushita K, van der Velde M, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2073–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GFH, van Gilst WH, de Zeeuw D, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation. 2002;106(14):1777–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Arnlöv J, Evans JC, Meigs JB, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Levy D, et al. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the Framingham heart study. Circulation. 2005;112(7):969–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tanaka F, Komi R, Makita S, Onoda T, Tanno K, Ohsawa M, et al. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in nondiabetic and normotensive individuals. J Hypertens. 2016;34(3):506–12. discussion 512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kunimura A, Ishii H, Uetani T, Harada K, Kataoka T, Takeshita M, et al. Prognostic value of albuminuria on cardiovascular outcomes after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117(5):714–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ibsen H, Olsen MH, Wachtell K, Borch-Johnsen K, Lindholm LH, Mogensen CE, et al. Reduction in albuminuria translates to reduction in cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients: losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Hypertens Dallas Tex 1979. 2005;45(2):198–202.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu C. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(13):1296–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association councils on kidney in cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure research, clinical cardiology, and epidemiology and prevention. Circulation. 2003;108(17):2154–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, House A, Rabbat C, Fok M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(7):2034–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Collins AJ, Li S, Gilbertson DT, Liu J, Chen S-C, Herzog CA. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population. Kidney Int Suppl. 2003;87:S24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foley RN, Murray AM, Li S, Herzog CA, McBean AM, Eggers PW, et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risk for cardiovascular disease, renal replacement, and death in the United States Medicare population, 1998 to 1999. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(2):489–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Meisinger C, Döring A, Löwel H, KORA Study Group. Chronic kidney disease and risk of incident myocardial infarction and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men and women from the general population. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(10):1245–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anavekar NS, McMurray JJV, Velazquez EJ, Solomon SD, Kober L, Rouleau J-L, et al. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(13):1285–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tonelli M, Muntner P, Lloyd A, Manns BJ, Klarenbach S, Pannu N, et al. Risk of coronary events in people with chronic kidney disease compared with those with diabetes: a population-level cohort study. Lancet Lond Engl. 2012;380(9844):807–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Matsushita K, Coresh J, Sang Y, Chalmers J, Fox C, Guallar E, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(7):514–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Joint British Societies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: the JBS3 risk calculator.
  53. 53.
    Bhatti NK, Karimi Galougahi K, Paz Y, Nazif T, Moses JW, Leon MB, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Advanced and End-Stage Renal Disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(8):e003648.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stack AG, Bloembergen WE. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and clinical correlates of congestive heart failure among incident US dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2001;38(5):992–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nakano T, Ninomiya T, Sumiyoshi S, Fujii H, Doi Y, Hirakata H, et al. Association of kidney function with coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in autopsy samples from Japanese elders: the Hisayama study. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2010;55(1):21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Joki N, Hase H, Nakamura R, Yamaguchi T. Onset of coronary artery disease prior to initiation of haemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 1997;12(4):718–23.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wada M, Ueda Y, Higo T, Matsuo K, Nishio M, Hirata A, et al. Chronic kidney disease and coronary artery vulnerable plaques. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(12):2792–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kato K, Yonetsu T, Jia H, Abtahian F, Vergallo R, Hu S, et al. Nonculprit coronary plaque characteristics of chronic kidney disease. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;6(3):448–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nakano T, Ninomiya T, Sumiyoshi S, Onimaru M, Fujii H, Itabe H, et al. Chronic kidney disease is associated with neovascularization and intraplaque hemorrhage in coronary atherosclerosis in elders: results from the Hisayama study. Kidney Int. 2013;84(2):373–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Afkarian M, Sachs MC, Kestenbaum B, Hirsch IB, Tuttle KR, Himmelfarb J, et al. Kidney disease and increased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(2):302–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levin A, Thompson CR, Ethier J, Carlisle EJ, Tobe S, Mendelssohn D, et al. Left ventricular mass index increase in early renal disease: impact of decline in hemoglobin. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 1999;34(1):125–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Peterson GE, de Backer T, Contreras G, Wang X, Kendrick C, Greene T, et al. Relationship of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function with cardiovascular and renal outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. Hypertens Dallas Tex 1979. 2013;62(3):518–25.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    London GM. Cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure: pathophysiologic aspects. Semin Dial. 2003;16(2):85–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bansal N, Keane M, Delafontaine P, Dries D, Foster E, Gadegbeku CA, et al. A longitudinal study of left ventricular function and structure from CKD to ESRD: the CRIC study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(3):355–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zoccali C, Benedetto FA, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G, Giacone G, Cataliotti A, et al. Prognostic value of echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular systolic function in asymptomatic dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(4):1029–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kramer H, Toto R, Peshock R, Cooper R, Victor R. Association between chronic kidney disease and coronary artery calcification: the Dallas heart study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(2):507–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Haydar AA, Hujairi NMA, Covic AA, Pereira D, Rubens M, Goldsmith DJA. Coronary artery calcification is related to coronary atherosclerosis in chronic renal disease patients: a study comparing EBCT-generated coronary artery calcium scores and coronary angiography. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2004;19(9):2307–12.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goodman WG, Goldin J, Kuizon BD, Yoon C, Gales B, Sider D, et al. Coronary-artery calcification in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(20):1478–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Matsuoka M, Iseki K, Tamashiro M, Fujimoto N, Higa N, Touma T, et al. Impact of high coronary artery calcification score (CACS) on survival in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2004;8(1):54–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Block GA, Raggi P, Bellasi A, Kooienga L, Spiegel DM. Mortality effect of coronary calcification and phosphate binder choice in incident hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2007;71(5):438–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ix JH, Katz R, Kestenbaum B, Fried LF, Kramer H, Stehman-Breen C, et al. Association of mild to moderate kidney dysfunction and coronary calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Mar;19(3):579–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fujimoto N, Iseki K, Tokuyama K, Tamashiro M, Takishita S. Significance of coronary artery calcification score (CACS) for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in chronic dialysis patients. Clin Chim Acta Int J Clin Chem. 2006;367(1–2):98–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sharples EJ, Pereira D, Summers S, Cunningham J, Rubens M, Goldsmith D, et al. Coronary artery calcification measured with electron-beam computerized tomography correlates poorly with coronary artery angiography in dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2004;43(2):313–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lentine KL, Costa SP, Weir MR, Robb JF, Fleisher LA, Kasiske BL, et al. Cardiac disease evaluation and management among kidney and liver transplantation candidates: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(5):434–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Oberg BP, McMenamin E, Lucas FL, McMonagle E, Morrow J, Ikizler TA, et al. Increased prevalence of oxidant stress and inflammation in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2004;65(3):1009–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Menon V, Greene T, Wang X, Pereira AA, Marcovina SM, Beck GJ, et al. C-reactive protein and albumin as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2005;68(2):766–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li W-J, Chen X-M, Nie X-Y, Zhang J, Cheng Y-J, Lin X-X, et al. Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. Clin São Paulo Braz. 2015;70(4):301–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wanner C, Metzger T. C-reactive protein a marker for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2002;17(Suppl 8):29–32.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    den Elzen WPJ, van Manen JG, Boeschoten EW, Krediet RT, Dekker FW. The effect of single and repeatedly high concentrations of C-reactive protein on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in patients starting with dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2006;21(6):1588–95.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pun PH, Smarz TR, Honeycutt EF, Shaw LK, Al-Khatib SM, Middleton JP. Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death among patients with coronary artery disease. Kidney Int. 2009;76(6):652–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Herzog CA, Mangrum JM, Passman R. Sudden cardiac death and dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2008;21(4):300–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Selby NM, Burton JO, Chesterton LJ, McIntyre CW. Dialysis-induced regional left ventricular dysfunction is ameliorated by cooling the dialysate. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(6):1216–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McIntyre CW, Burton JO, Selby NM, Leccisotti L, Korsheed S, Baker CSR, et al. Hemodialysis-induced cardiac dysfunction is associated with an acute reduction in global and segmental myocardial blood flow. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(1):19–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Herzog CA, Ma JZ, Collins AJ. Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(12):799–805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Go AS, Bansal N, Chandra M, Lathon PV, Fortmann SP, Iribarren C, et al. Chronic kidney disease and risk for presenting with acute myocardial infarction versus stable exertional angina in adults with coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(15):1600–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sosnov J, Lessard D, Goldberg RJ, Yarzebski J, Gore JM. Differential symptoms of acute myocardial infarction in patients with kidney disease: a community-wide perspective. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2006;47(3):378–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Herzog CA, Littrell K, Arko C, Frederick PD, Blaney M. Clinical characteristics of dialysis patients with acute myocardial infarction in the United States: a collaborative project of the United States renal data system and the National Registry of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2007;116(13):1465–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Matsushita K, Ballew SH, Coresh J. Cardiovascular risk prediction in people with chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2016;25(6):518–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Green TR, Golper TA, Swenson RD, Pulliam JP, Morris CD. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in chronic hemodialysis patients: a longitudinal study. Clin Nephrol. 1986;25(1):22–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mishra RK, Li Y, DeFilippi C, Fischer MJ, Yang W, Keane M, et al. Association of cardiac troponin T with left ventricular structure and function in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2013;61(5):701–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stacy SR, Suarez-Cuervo C, Berger Z, Wilson LM, Yeh H-C, Bass EB, et al. Role of troponin in patients with chronic kidney disease and suspected acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(7):502–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Michos ED, Wilson LM, Yeh H-C, Berger Z, Suarez-Cuervo C, Stacy SR, et al. Prognostic value of cardiac troponin in patients with chronic kidney disease without suspected acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(7):491–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ohtake T, Kobayashi S, Moriya H, Negishi K, Okamoto K, Maesato K, et al. High prevalence of occult coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic kidney disease at the initiation of renal replacement therapy: an angiographic examination. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(4):1141–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Marwick TH, Steinmuller DR, Underwood DA, Hobbs RE, Go RT, Swift C, et al. Ineffectiveness of dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging as a screening technique for coronary artery disease in patients with end-stage renal failure. Transplantation. 1990;49(1):100–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dahan M, Viron BM, Poiseau E, Kolta AM, Aubry N, Paillole C, et al. Combined dipyridamole-exercise stress echocardiography for detection of myocardial ischemia in hemodialysis patients: an alternative to stress nuclear imaging. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2002;40(4):737–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rabbat CG, Treleaven DJ, Russell JD, Ludwin D, Cook DJ. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion studies in patients with end-stage renal disease assessed for kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(2):431–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nauta ST, van Domburg RT, Nuis R-J, Akkerhuis M, Deckers JW. Decline in 20-year mortality after myocardial infarction in patients with chronic kidney disease: evolution from the prethrombolysis to the percutaneous coronary intervention era. Kidney Int. 2013;84(2):353–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vavalle JP, van Diepen S, Clare RM, Hochman JS, Weaver WD, Mehta RH, et al. Renal failure in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention: predictors, clinical and angiographic features, and outcomes. Am Heart J. 2016;173:57–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Azzalini L, Spagnoli V, Ly HQ. Contrast-induced nephropathy: from pathophysiology to preventive strategies. Can J Cardiol. 2016;32(2):247–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Silver SA, Shah PM, Chertow GM, Harel S, Wald R, Harel Z. Risk prediction models for contrast induced nephropathy: systematic review. BMJ. 2015;351:h4395.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang B, Liang L, Chen W, Liang C, Zhang S. The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency: a meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5(3):e006989.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bainey KR, Rahim S, Etherington K, Rokoss ML, Natarajan MK, Velianou JL, et al. Effects of withdrawing vs continuing renin-angiotensin blockers on incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization: results from the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and contrast induced nephropathy in patients receiving cardiac catheterization (CAPTAIN) trial. Am Heart J. 2015;170(1):110–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Favre GA, Esnault VLM, Van Obberghen E. Modulation of glucose metabolism by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308(6):E435–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Khan UA, Garg AX, Parikh CR, Coca SG. Prevention of chronic kidney disease and subsequent effect on mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71784.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kanno Y, Kaneko K, Kaneko M, Kotaki S, Mimura T, Takane H, et al. Angiotensin receptor antagonist regresses left ventricular hypertrophy associated with diabetic nephropathy in dialysis patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;43(3):380–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yang L-Y, Ge X, Wang Y-L, Ma K-L, Liu H, Zhang X-L, et al. Angiotensin receptor blockers reduce left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis patients: a meta-analysis. Am J Med Sci. 2013;345(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zhang L, Zeng X, Fu P, Wu HM. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers for preserving residual kidney function in peritoneal dialysis patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD009120.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Akbari A, Knoll G, Ferguson D, McCormick B, Davis A, Biyani M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in peritoneal dialysis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Perit Dial Int J Int Soc Perit Dial. 2009;29(5):554–61.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Curtis JJ, Laskow DA, Jones PA, Julian BA, Gaston RS, Luke RG. Captopril-induced fall in glomerular filtration rate in cyclosporine-treated hypertensive patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1993;3(9):1570–4.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hiremath S, Fergusson D, Doucette S, Mulay AV, Knoll GA. Renin angiotensin system blockade in kidney transplantation: a systematic review of the evidence. Am J Transplant Off J Am Soc Transplant Am Soc Transplant Surg. 2007;7(10):2350–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ibrahim HN, Jackson S, Connaire J, Matas A, Ney A, Najafian B, et al. Angiotensin II blockade in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Feb;24(2):320–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tokmakova MP, Skali H, Kenchaiah S, Braunwald E, Rouleau JL, Packer M, et al. Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular risk, and response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition after myocardial infarction: the survival and ventricular enlargement (SAVE) study. Circulation. 2004;110(24):3667–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hillege HL, Nitsch D, Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, McMurray JJV, Yusuf S, et al. Renal function as a predictor of outcome in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure. Circulation. 2006;113(5):671–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Damman K, Navis G, Voors AA, Asselbergs FW, Smilde TDJ, Cleland JGF, et al. Worsening renal function and prognosis in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Fail. 2007;13(8):599–608.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shlipak MG, Smith GL, Rathore SS, Massie BM, Krumholz HM. Renal function, digoxin therapy, and heart failure outcomes: evidence from the digoxin intervention group trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(8):2195–203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smith GL, Lichtman JH, Bracken MB, Shlipak MG, Phillips CO, DiCapua P, et al. Renal impairment and outcomes in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(10):1987–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hillege HL, Girbes AR, de Kam PJ, Boomsma F, de Zeeuw D, Charlesworth A, et al. Renal function, neurohormonal activation, and survival in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2000;102(2):203–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    McAlister FA, Ezekowitz J, Tonelli M, Armstrong PW. Renal insufficiency and heart failure: prognostic and therapeutic implications from a prospective cohort study. Circulation. 2004;109(8):1004–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Clark H, Krum H, Hopper I. Worsening renal function during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor initiation and long-term outcomes in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014;16(1):41–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ezekowitz J, McAlister FA, Humphries KH, Norris CM, Tonelli M, Ghali WA, et al. The association among renal insufficiency, pharmacotherapy, and outcomes in 6,427 patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(8):1587–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone evaluation study investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(10):709–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zannad F, McMurray JJV, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, Swedberg K, Shi H, et al. Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(1):11–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Harel Z, Gilbert C, Wald R, Bell C, Perl J, Juurlink D, et al. The effect of combination treatment with aliskiren and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system on hyperkalaemia and acute kidney injury: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344:e42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Parving H-H, Brenner BM, McMurray JJV, de Zeeuw D, Haffner SM, Solomon SD, et al. Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(23):2204–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mann JFE, Schmieder RE, McQueen M, Dyal L, Schumacher H, Pogue J, et al. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 2008;372(9638):547–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    ONTARGET Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, Dyal L, Copland I, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1547–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Makani H, Bangalore S, Desouza KA, Shah A, Messerli FH. Efficacy and safety of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2013;346:f360.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Susantitaphong P, Sewaralthahab K, Balk EM, Eiam-ong S, Madias NE, Jaber BL. Efficacy and safety of combined vs. single renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2013 Mar;26(3):424–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bolignano D, Palmer SC, Navaneethan SD, Strippoli GFM. Aldosterone antagonists for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;4:CD007004.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bangalore S, Kumar S, Messerli FH. When conventional heart failure therapy is not enough: angiotensin receptor blocker, direct renin inhibitor, or aldosterone antagonist? Congest Heart Fail Greenwich Conn. 2013;19(3):107–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Arici M, Erdem Y. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system for cardiorenal protection: an update. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2009;53(2):332–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Becker GJ, Wheeler DC, De Zeeuw D, Fujita T, Furth SL, Holdaas H, Mendis S, Oparil S, Perkovic V, Rodrigues CI, Sarnak MJ. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group: KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2(5):337–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Verbeke F, Lindley E, Van Bortel L, Vanholder R, London G, Cochat P, et al. A European renal best practice (ERBP) position statement on the kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: an endorsement with some caveats for real-life application. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2014;29(3):490–6.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    SPRINT Research Group, Wright JT, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2103–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for diabetes and CKD: 2012 update. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2012;60(5):850–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Qaseem A, Hopkins RH, Sweet DE, Starkey M, Shekelle P. Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American college of physicians. Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(12):835–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Taler SJ, Agarwal R, Bakris GL, Flynn JT, Nilsson PM, Rahman M, et al. KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for management of blood pressure in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2013;62(2):201–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bakris GL, Weir MR. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated elevations in serum creatinine: is this a cause for concern? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(5):685–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2004;43(5 Suppl 1):S1–290.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bakris GL, Weir MR, Secic M, Campbell B, Weis-McNulty A. Differential effects of calcium antagonist subclasses on markers of nephropathy progression. Kidney Int. 2004;65(6):1991–2002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Agodoa LY, Appel L, Bakris GL, Beck G, Bourgoignie J, Briggs JP, et al. Effect of ramipril vs amlodipine on renal outcomes in hypertensive nephrosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(21):2719–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA, Lewis JB, et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):851–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Agarwal R, Sinha AD, Pappas MK, Abraham TN, Tegegne GG. Hypertension in hemodialysis patients treated with atenolol or lisinopril: a randomized controlled trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2014;29(3):672–81.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Dinneen SF, Gerstein HC. The association of microalbuminuria and mortality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A systematic overview of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(13):1413–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Strippoli GFM, Bonifati C, Craig M, Navaneethan SD, Craig JC. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists for preventing the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;4:CD006257.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Keane WF, Mitch WE, Parving HH, et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):861–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(14):977–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund J-YC, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, et al. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(25):2643–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Nathan DM, Bayless M, Cleary P, Genuth S, Gubitosi-Klug R, Lachin JM, et al. Diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study at 30 years: advances and contributions. Diabetes. 2013;62(12):3976–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet Lond Engl. 1998;352(9131):837–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2560–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zoungas S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, Li Q, Hirakawa Y, et al. Follow-up of blood-pressure lowering and glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1392–406.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ismail-Beigi F, Craven T, Banerji MA, Basile J, Calles J, Cohen RM, et al. Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 2010;376(9739):419–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Standards of medical care in diabetes—2016: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(Supplement 1):S4–5.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Guideline Development Group. Clinical Practice Guideline on management of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease stage 3b or higher (eGFR <45 mL/min). Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2015;30(Suppl 2):ii1–142.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Inzucchi SE, Lipska KJ, Mayo H, Bailey CJ, McGuire DK. Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease: a systematic review. JAMA. 2014;312(24):2668–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lalau J-D, Arnouts P, Sharif A, De Broe ME. Metformin and other antidiabetic agents in renal failure patients. Kidney Int. 2015;87(2):308–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Palmer BF, Clegg DJ, Taylor SI, Weir MR. Diabetic ketoacidosis, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors and the kidney. J Diabetes Complicat. 2016;30(6):1162–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Research C for DE and Drug Safety and Availability – FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA strengthens kidney warnings for diabetes medicines canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR) [Internet]. [cited 2016 Oct 1]. Available from:
  161. 161.
    Baigent C, Landray MJ, Reith C, Emberson J, Wheeler DC, Tomson C, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (study of heart and renal protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 2011;377(9784):2181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wanner C, Krane V, März W, Olschewski M, Mann JFE, Ruf G, et al. Atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(3):238–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fellström BC, Jardine AG, Schmieder RE, Holdaas H, Bannister K, Beutler J, et al. Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(14):1395–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Lipid Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guidelinefor lip management in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. Suppl. 2013;(3):259–305.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Domrongkitchaiporn S, Sritara P, Kitiyakara C, Stitchantrakul W, Krittaphol V, Lolekha P, et al. Risk factors for development of decreased kidney function in a southeast Asian population: a 12-year cohort study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(3):791–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Kinjo K, Inoue T, Iseki C, Takishita S. Body mass index and the risk of development of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort. Kidney Int. 2004;65(5):1870–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Panwar B, Hanks LJ, Tanner RM, Muntner P, Kramer H, McClellan WM, et al. Obesity, metabolic health, and the risk of end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2015;87(6):1216–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Poirier P, Giles TD, Bray GA, Hong Y, Stern JS, Pi-Sunyer FX, et al. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association scientific statement on obesity and heart disease from the obesity Committee of the Council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation. 2006;113(6):898–918.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hsu C, McCulloch CE, Iribarren C, Darbinian J, Go AS. Body mass index and risk for end-stage renal disease. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(1):21–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Praga M, Morales E. The fatty kidney: obesity and renal diease. Nephron. 2017;136:273–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ogorodnikova AD, Kim M, McGinn AP, Muntner P, Khan U, Wildman RP. Incident cardiovascular disease events in metabolically benign obese individuals. Obes Silver Spring Md. 2012;20(3):651–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lu JL, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Ma JZ, Quarles LD, Kovesdy CP. Association of body mass index with outcomes in patients with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(9):2088–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Abramowitz MK, Sharma D, Folkert VW. Hidden obesity in Dialysis patients: clinical implications. Semin Dial. 2016;29(5):391–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Streja E, Kovesdy CP, Oreopoulos A, Noori N, Jing J, et al. The obesity paradox and mortality associated with surrogates of body size and muscle mass in patients receiving hemodialysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(11):991–1001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Postorino M, Marino C, Tripepi G, Zoccali C. CREDIT (Calabria registry of Dialysis and transplantation) working group. Abdominal obesity and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(15):1265–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJL. Comparative risk assessment collaborating group. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet Lond Engl. 2002;360(9343):1347–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ejerblad E, Fored CM, Lindblad P, Fryzek J, Dickman PW, Elinder C-G, et al. Association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide population-based case-control study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(8):2178–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Liang KV, Greene EL, Oei LS, Lewin M, Lager D, Sethi S. Nodular glomerulosclerosis: renal lesions in chronic smokers mimic chronic thrombotic microangiopathy and hypertensive lesions. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2007;49(4):552–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Nasr SH, D’Agati VD. Nodular glomerulosclerosis in the nondiabetic smoker. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(7):2032–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kusaba T, Hatta T, Sonomura K, Mori Y, Tokoro T, Nagata T, et al. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis: three Japanese cases and review of the literature. Clin Nephrol. 2007;67(1):32–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Remuzzi G. Cigarette smoking and renal function impairment. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 1999;33(4):807–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Orth SR, Ogata H, Ritz E. Smoking and the kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2000;15(10):1509–11.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pinto-Sietsma SJ, Mulder J, Janssen WM, Hillege HL, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE. Smoking is related to albuminuria and abnormal renal function in nondiabetic persons. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(8):585–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    De Cosmo S, Lamacchia O, Rauseo A, Viti R, Gesualdo L, Pilotti A, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with low glomerular filtration rate in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2467–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Orth SR, Schroeder T, Ritz E, Ferrari P. Effects of smoking on renal function in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2005;20(11):2414–9.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Haroun MK, Jaar BG, Hoffman SC, Comstock GW, Klag MJ, Coresh J. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease: a prospective study of 23,534 men and women in Washington County, Maryland. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(11):2934–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Staplin N, Haynes R, Herrington WG, Reith C, Cass A, Fellström B, et al. Smoking and adverse outcomes in patients with CKD: the study of heart and renal protection (SHARP). Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2016;68(3):371–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Cheung AK, Sarnak MJ, Yan G, Dwyer JT, Heyka RJ, Rocco MV, et al. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2000;58(1):353–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Foley RN, Herzog CA, Collins AJ. Smoking and cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients: the United States renal data system wave 2 study. Kidney Int. 2003;63(4):1462–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Siu AL, U.S. Preventive services task force. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(8):622–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Van Craenenbroeck AH, Van Craenenbroeck EM, Van Ackeren K, Hoymans VY, Verpooten GA, Vrints CJ, et al. Impaired vascular function contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc – Eur Ren Assoc. 2016.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Chen I-R, Wang S-M, Liang C-C, Kuo H-L, Chang C-T, Liu J-H, et al. Association of walking with survival and RRT among patients with CKD stages 3-5. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(7):1183–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Wilkinson TJ, Shur NF, Smith AC. “Exercise as medicine” in chronic kidney disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(8):985–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Robinson-Cohen C, Littman AJ, Duncan GE, Weiss NS, Sachs MC, Ruzinski J, et al. Physical activity and change in estimated GFR among persons with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(2):399–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Parker K. Intradialytic exercise is medicine for hemodialysis patients. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2016;15(4):269–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training in adults with CKD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2014;64(3):383–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Palmer S, Vecchio M, Craig JC, Tonelli M, Johnson DW, Nicolucci A, et al. Prevalence of depression in chronic kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Kidney Int. 2013;84(1):179–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Foster MC, Coresh J, Fornage M, Astor BC, Grams M, Franceschini N, et al. APOL1 variants associate with increased risk of CKD among African Americans. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(9):1484–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Coronado Daza J, Martí-Carvajal AJ, Ariza García A, Rodelo Ceballos J, Yomayusa González N, Páez-Canro C, et al. Early versus delayed erythropoietin for the anaemia of end-stage kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;12:CD011122.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Palmer SC, Saglimbene V, Mavridis D, Salanti G, Craig JC, Tonelli M, et al. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in adults with chronic kidney disease: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD010590.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gossmann J, Burkhardt R, Harder S, Lenz T, Sedlmeyer A, Klinkhardt U, et al. Angiotensin II infusion increases plasma erythropoietin levels via an angiotensin II type 1 receptor-dependent pathway. Kidney Int. 2001;60(1):83–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Freudenthaler SM, Schenck T, Lucht I, Gleiter CH. Fenoterol stimulates human erythropoietin production via activation of the renin angiotensin system. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;48(4):631–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Freudenthaler S, Benöhr P, Grenz A, Selzer T, Schmidt T, Mörike K, et al. Do alterations of endogenous angiotensin II levels regulate erythropoietin production in humans? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56(4):378–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Matsumura M, Nomura H, Koni I, Mabuchi H. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are associated with the need for increased recombinant human erythropoietin maintenance doses in hemodialysis patients. Risks of cardiac disease in Dialysis patients study group. Nephron. 1997;77(2):164–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Navarro JF, Mora C, Rivero A. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on hematological parameters and recombinant human erythropoietin doses in peritoneal dialysis patients. Nephron. 1998;80(2):239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Panwar B, Gutiérrez OM. Disorders of Iron metabolism and Anemia in chronic kidney disease. Semin Nephrol. 2016;36(4):252–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ganz T, Nemeth E. Iron balance and the role of Hepcidin in chronic kidney disease. Semin Nephrol. 2016;36(2):87–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Pfeffer MA, Burdmann EA, Chen C-Y, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Eckardt K-U, et al. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(21):2019–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Glassock RJ, Pecoits-Filho R, Barberato SH. Left ventricular mass in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(Suppl 1):S79–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Collister D, Komenda P, Hiebert B, Gunasekara R, Xu Y, Eng F, et al. The effect of erythropoietin-stimulating agents on health-related quality of life in Anemia of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(7):472–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Phrommintikul A, Haas SJ, Elsik M, Krum H. Mortality and target haemoglobin concentrations in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease treated with erythropoietin: a meta-analysis. Lancet Lond Engl. 2007;369(9559):381–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    The Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Anemia Work Group. 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012; 2: 279–335. 282.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y, Inaba M, Matsumoto N, Emoto M, Kawagishi T, et al. Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999;55(3):1019–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Adeney KL, Siscovick DS, Ix JH, Seliger SL, Shlipak MG, Jenny NS, et al. Association of serum phosphate with vascular and valvular calcification in moderate CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(2):381–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Gutiérrez OM, Januzzi JL, Isakova T, Laliberte K, Smith K, Collerone G, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease. Circulation. 2009;119(19):2545–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Suki WN, Zabaneh R, Cangiano JL, Reed J, Fischer D, Garrett L, et al. Effects of sevelamer and calcium-based phosphate binders on mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2007;72(9):1130–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Palmer SC, Gardner S, Tonelli M, Mavridis D, Johnson DW, Craig JC, French R, Ruospo M, Strippoli GF. Phosphate-binding agents in adults with CKD: a network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;68(5):691–702. Epub 2016 Jul 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Navaneethan SD, Palmer SC, Craig JC, Elder GJ, Strippoli GFM. Benefits and harms of phosphate binders in CKD: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2009;54(4):619–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Navaneethan SD, Palmer SC, Vecchio M, Craig JC, Elder GJ, Strippoli GF. Phosphate binders for preventing and treating bone disease in chronic kidney disease patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD006023.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Tentori F, Hunt WC, Stidley CA, Rohrscheib MR, Bedrick EJ, Meyer KB, et al. Mortality risk among hemodialysis patients receiving different vitamin D analogs. Kidney Int. 2006;70(10):1858–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kuwae N, Regidor DL, Kovesdy CP, Kilpatrick RD, Shinaberger CS, et al. Survival predictability of time-varying indicators of bone disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2006;70(4):771–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Wetmore JB, Gurevich K, Sprague S, Da Roza G, Buerkert J, Reiner M, et al. A randomized trial of Cinacalcet versus vitamin D analogs as Monotherapy in secondary hyperparathyroidism (PARADIGM). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(6):1031–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Trial Investigators EVOLVE, Chertow GM, Block GA, Correa-Rotter R, Drüeke TB, Floege J, et al. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(26):2482–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Palmer SC, Teixeira-Pinto A, Saglimbene V, Craig JC, Macaskill P, Tonelli M, et al. Association of Drug Effects on serum parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, and calcium levels with mortality in CKD: a meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2015;66(6):962–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of CKD–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney Int Suppl. 2009;76(Supplement 113):Sv–S121.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Kraut JA, Madias NE. Metabolic acidosis of CKD: an update. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2016;67(2):307–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Locatelli F, Alberti D, Graziani G, Buccianti G, Redaelli B, Giangrande A. Prospective, randomised, multicentre trial of effect of protein restriction on progression of chronic renal insufficiency. Northern Italian cooperative study group. Lancet Lond Engl. 1991;337(8753):1299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Klahr S, Levey AS, Beck GJ, Caggiula AW, Hunsicker L, Kusek JW, et al. The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood-pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. Modification of diet in renal disease study group. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(13):877–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Mitch WE, Remuzzi G. Diets for patients with chronic kidney disease, still worth prescribing. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(1):234–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Remuzzi G, Bertani T. Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(20):1448–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P, Perico N. Chronic renal diseases: renoprotective benefits of renin-angiotensin system inhibition. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(8):604–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Slavin JL. Position of the American dietetic association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1716–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ramezani A, Raj DS. The gut microbiome, kidney disease, and targeted interventions. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(4):657–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lau WL, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Vaziri ND. The gut as a source of inflammation in chronic kidney disease. Nephron. 2015;130(2):92–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Kasiske BL, Lakatua JD, Ma JZ, Louis TA. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein restriction on the rate of decline in renal function. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 1998;31(6):954–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Friedman AN, Yu Z, Juliar BE, Nguyen JT, Strother M, Quinney SK, et al. Independent influence of dietary protein on markers of kidney function and disease in obesity. Kidney Int. 2010;78(7):693–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Xu H, Huang X, Risérus U, Krishnamurthy VM, Cederholm T, Arnlöv J, et al. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(12):2104–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Chiu Y-W, Teitelbaum I, Misra M, de Leon EM, Adzize T, Mehrotra R. Pill burden, adherence, hyperphosphatemia, and quality of life in maintenance dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(6):1089–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Ginsberg JS, Zhan M, Diamantidis CJ, Woods C, Chen J, Fink JC. Patient-reported and actionable safety events in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(7):1564–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Newmaster SG, Grguric M, Shanmughanandhan D, Ramalingam S, Ragupathy S. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in north American herbal products. BMC Med. 2013;11:222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Herbal Supplements and Kidney Disease [Internet]. The National Kidney Foundation. 2015 [cited 2016 Oct 2]. Available from:
  242. 242.
    Buettner M, Toennes SW, Buettner S, Bickel M, Allwinn R, Geiger H, et al. Nephropathy in illicit drug abusers: a postmortem analysis. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2014;63(6):945–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Pun PH, Al-Khatib SM, Han JY, Edwards R, Bardy GH, Bigger JT, et al. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in CKD: a meta-analysis of patient-level data from 3 randomized trials. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2014;64(1):32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Wang ZJ, Harjai KJ, Shenoy C, Gao F, Shi DM, Liu YY, et al. Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in patients with decreased GFR: a meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2013;62(4):711–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Tomai F, Ribichini F, De Luca L, Petrolini A, Ghini AS, Weltert L, et al. Randomized comparison of Xience V and multi-link vision coronary stents in the same multivessel patient with chronic kidney disease (RENAL-DES) study. Circulation. 2014;129(10):1104–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Odutayo A, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ, Hopewell S, Altman DG, Emdin CA. Atrial fibrillation and risks of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016;354:i4482.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Dahal K, Kunwar S, Rijal J, Schulman P, Lee J. Stroke, major bleeding, and mortality outcomes in warfarin users with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Chest. 2016;149(4):951–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Bonde AN, Lip GYH, Kamper A-L, Hansen PR, Lamberts M, Hommel K, et al. Net clinical benefit of antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a nationwide observational cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(23):2471–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Carrero JJ, Evans M, Szummer K, Spaak J, Lindhagen L, Edfors R, et al. Warfarin, kidney dysfunction, and outcomes following acute myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation. JAMA. 2014;311(9):919–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    WRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERS, Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128(16):e240–327.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    van Veldhuisen DJ, Ruilope LM, Maisel AS, Damman K. Biomarkers of renal injury and function: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications in heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(33):2577–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    National Kidney Foundation Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Controlling the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;32(Suppl 3):S115.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NephrologyUniversity of Maryland Medical SystemBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations