Peripheral Arterial Disease

  • Taisei Kobayashi
  • Jay Giri
  • Emile R. MohlerIIIEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


For the purposes of this chapter, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease in the arteries of the lower extremities. A broader definition of peripheral arterial disease would encompass the aorta and all its major visceral branches (carotid arteries, mesenteric arteries, renal arteries, and extremity arteries). This chapter will not cover therapeutic considerations related to disease in each of these arterial beds.


Amputation Angioplasty Atherosclerosis Bypass surgery Claudication Gangrene 



Ankle-brachial index


American College of Cardiology


Angiotensin-converting enzyme


American Heart Association


Critical limb ischemia


Computed tomographic angiography

Hgb A1c

Hemoglobin A1c


Low-density lipoprotein


Magnetic resonance angiography


Peripheral arterial disease


Trans-Atlantic Intersociety Consensus Working Group


Toe-brachial index


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taisei Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Jay Giri
    • 1
  • Emile R. MohlerIII
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Cardiovascular DivisionUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Vascular MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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