Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

  • Ahmed A. Kolkailah
  • Fernando Ramirez Del Val
  • Tsuyoshi Kaneko
  • Sary F. ArankiEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardiac tissue, or heart muscle, relies on blood supply from coronary arteries for oxygen and nutrient delivery. When the coronary arteries are narrowed, or blocked, restoration of blood flow is essential for preservation of heart tissue and avoidance of myocardial infarction (i.e., dead heart muscle). Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has long been the standard surgical treatment option for patients with CAD. The principle of the operation is to create a new route for nutrients and oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart muscle by using a conduit, either a vein or an artery. The most commonly used conduits are the internal mammary arteries or the great saphenous veins. In this chapter, we shed light on this important surgical technique, with emphases on its indications, outcomes, and complications. We also highlight some special considerations and discuss the emergence of new, less invasive techniques like minimally invasive bypass procedures, hybrid CABG, as well as the evolution of technology to include robotic techniques.


Coronary artery bypass Coronary artery disease Myocardial revascularization Graft conduits Cardiac surgery 



American College of Cardiology


Atrial fibrillation


American Heart Association




Coronary artery bypass grafting


Coronary artery disease


Coronary endarterectomy


Carotid endarterectomy


Cardiopulmonary bypass


Dual antiplatelet therapy


End-stage renal disease


Hybrid coronary revascularization


Internal mammary artery


Left anterior descending (coronary)


Left internal mammary artery


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Myocardial infarction


Minimally invasive cardiac surgery


Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass


Off-pump coronary artery bypass


Percutaneous intervention


Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions


Society of Thoracic Surgeons


Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass


Ventricular tachycardia


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Kolkailah
    • 1
  • Fernando Ramirez Del Val
    • 1
  • Tsuyoshi Kaneko
    • 1
  • Sary F. Aranki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Cardiac SurgeryBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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