Advertisement

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

  • Ahmed A. Kolkailah
  • Fernando Ramirez Del Val
  • Tsuyoshi Kaneko
  • Sary F. ArankiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)

Abstract

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardiac tissue, or heart muscle, relies on blood supply from coronary arteries for oxygen and nutrient delivery. When the coronary arteries are narrowed, or blocked, restoration of blood flow is essential for preservation of heart tissue and avoidance of myocardial infarction (i.e., dead heart muscle). Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has long been the standard surgical treatment option for patients with CAD. The principle of the operation is to create a new route for nutrients and oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart muscle by using a conduit, either a vein or an artery. The most commonly used conduits are the internal mammary arteries or the great saphenous veins. In this chapter, we shed light on this important surgical technique, with emphases on its indications, outcomes, and complications. We also highlight some special considerations and discuss the emergence of new, less invasive techniques like minimally invasive bypass procedures, hybrid CABG, as well as the evolution of technology to include robotic techniques.

Keywords

Coronary artery bypass Coronary artery disease Myocardial revascularization Graft conduits Cardiac surgery 

Abbreviations

ACC

American College of Cardiology

AF

Atrial fibrillation

AHA

American Heart Association

ASA

Aspirin

CABG

Coronary artery bypass grafting

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CE

Coronary endarterectomy

CEA

Carotid endarterectomy

CPB

Cardiopulmonary bypass

DAPT

Dual antiplatelet therapy

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

HCR

Hybrid coronary revascularization

IMA

Internal mammary artery

LAD

Left anterior descending (coronary)

LIMA

Left internal mammary artery

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

MI

Myocardial infarction

MICS

Minimally invasive cardiac surgery

MIDCAB

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass

OPCAB

Off-pump coronary artery bypass

PCI

Percutaneous intervention

SCAI

Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

STS

Society of Thoracic Surgeons

TECAB

Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass

VT

Ventricular tachycardia

References

  1. 1.
    Harken DE, Black H, Dickson JF 3rd, Wilson HE 3rd. De-epicardialization: a simple, effective surgical treatment for angina pectoris. Circulation. 1955;12(6):955–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beck CS. The development of a new blood supply to the heart by operation. Ann Surg. 1935;102(5):801–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Key JA, Kergin FG, Martineau Y, Leckey RG. A method of supplementing the coronary circulation by a jejunal pedicle graft. J Thorac Surg. 1954;28(3):320–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bailey CP, May A, Lemmon WM. Survival after coronary endarterectomy in man. J Am Med Assoc. 1957;164(6):641–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Longmire WP Jr, Cannon JA, Kattus AA. Direct-vision coronary endarterectomy for angina pectoris. N Engl J Med. 1958;259(21):993–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dubost C, Blondeau P, Piwnica A, et al. Syphilitic coronary obstruction: correction under artificial heart-lung and profound hypothermia. Surgery. 1960;48:540–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vineberg AM. Restoration of coronary circulation by anastomosis. Can Med Assoc J. 1946;55(2):117–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohn LH. Fifty years of open-heart surgery. Circulation. 2003;107(17):2168–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Favaloro RG. Double internal mammary artery implants: operative technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1968;55(4):457–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olearchyk AS. Vasilii I. Kolesov. A pioneer of coronary revascularization by internal mammary-coronary artery grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;96(1):13–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garrett HE, Dennis EW, DeBakey ME. Aortocoronary bypass with saphenous vein graft. Seven-year follow-up. JAMA. 1973;223(7):792–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooley DA. In memoriam. Tribute to Rene Favaloro, pioneer of coronary bypass. Tex Heart Inst J. 2000;27(3):231–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson WD, Flemma RJ, Lepley D Jr, Ellison EH. Extended treatment of severe coronary artery disease: a total surgical approach. Ann Surg. 1969;170(3):460–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Windecker S, Kolh P, Alfonso F, et al. 2014 ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(37):2541.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beller GA, Ragosta M. Decision making in multivessel coronary disease: the need for physiological lesion assessment. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;3(3):315–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tonino PA, Fearon WF, De Bruyne B, et al. Angiographic versus functional severity of coronary artery stenoses in the FAME study fractional flow reserve versus angiography in multivessel evaluation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(25):2816–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Serruys PW, Morice MC, Kappetein AP, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(10):961–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 2011;124(23):e652.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sianos G, Morel MA, Kappetein AP, et al. The SYNTAX Score: an angiographic tool grading the complexity of coronary artery disease. EuroIntervention. 2005;1(2):219–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morice MC, Serruys PW, Kappetein AP, et al. Outcomes in patients with de novo left main disease treated with either percutaneous coronary intervention using paclitaxel-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass graft treatment in the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial. Circulation. 2010;121(24):2645–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Farooq V, van Klaveren D, Steyerberg EW, et al. Anatomical and clinical characteristics to guide decision making between coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention for individual patients: development and validation of SYNTAX score II. Lancet (London, England). 2013;381(9867):639–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garg S, Sarno G, Garcia-Garcia HM, et al. A new tool for the risk stratification of patients with complex coronary artery disease: the Clinical SYNTAX Score. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;3(4):317–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cetinkal G, Dogan SM, Kocas C, et al. The value of the Clinical SYNTAX Score in predicting long-term prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who have undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Coron Artery Dis. 2016;27(2):135–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prins C, De Villiers Jonker I, Smit FE, Botes L. Cardiac surgery risk-stratification models. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2012;23(3):160–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shahian DM, O’Brien SM, Filardo G, et al. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk models: Part 1–coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88(1 Suppl):S2–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Granton J, Cheng D. Risk stratification models for cardiac surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;12(3):167–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nashef SA, Roques F, Michel P, Gauducheau E, Lemeshow S, Salamon R. European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;16(1):9–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heijmans JH, Maessen JG, Roekaerts PM. Risk stratification for adverse outcome in cardiac surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2003;20(7):515–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nashef SA, Roques F, Sharples LD, et al. EuroSCORE II. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41(4):734–44; discussion 744–735.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hannan EL, Racz MJ, Walford G, et al. Long-term outcomes of coronary-artery bypass grafting versus stent implantation. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(21):2174–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mack MJ, Brown PP, Kugelmass AD, et al. Current status and outcomes of coronary revascularization 1999 to 2002: 148,396 surgical and percutaneous procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77(3):761–6; discussion 766–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aldea GS, Bakaeen FG, Pal J, et al. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons clinical practice guidelines on arterial conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101(2):801–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rajiah P, Schoenhagen P. The role of computed tomography in pre-procedural planning of cardiovascular surgery and intervention. Insights Imaging. 2013;4(5):671–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taggart DP, D’Amico R, Altman DG. Effect of arterial revascularisation on survival: a systematic review of studies comparing bilateral and single internal mammary arteries. Lancet (London, England). 2001;358(9285):870–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Locker C, Schaff HV, Dearani JA, et al. Multiple arterial grafts improve late survival of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: analysis of 8622 patients with multivessel disease. Circulation. 2012;126(9):1023–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yi G, Shine B, Rehman SM, Altman DG, Taggart DP. Effect of bilateral internal mammary artery grafts on long-term survival: a meta-analysis approach. Circulation. 2014;130(7):539–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Muneretto C, Negri A, Manfredi J, et al. Safety and usefulness of composite grafts for total arterial myocardial revascularization: a prospective randomized evaluation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;125(4):826–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Taggart DP, Altman DG, Gray AM, et al. Randomized trial of bilateral versus single internal-thoracic-artery grafts. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(26):2540–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Velazquez EJ, Lee KL, Jones RH, et al. Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(16):1511–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singh M, Arora R, Kodumuri V, Khosla S, Jawad E. Coronary revascularization in diabetic patients: current state of evidence. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2011;16(1):16–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Farkouh ME, Domanski M, Sleeper LA, et al. Strategies for multivessel revascularization in patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(25):2375–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ryden L, Grant PJ, Anker SD, et al. ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the task force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2013;34(39):3035–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fihn SD, Blankenship JC, Alexander KP, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(18):1929–49.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    BARI Investigators. The final 10-year follow-up results from the BARI randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(15):1600–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hemmelgarn BR, Southern D, Culleton BF, Mitchell LB, Knudtson ML, Ghali WA. Survival after coronary revascularization among patients with kidney disease. Circulation. 2004;110(14):1890–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Witczak B, Hartmann A, Svennevig JL. Multiple risk assessment of cardiovascular surgery in chronic renal failure patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(4):1297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Charytan DM, Kuntz RE. Risks of coronary artery bypass surgery in dialysis-dependent patients–analysis of the 2001 National Inpatient Sample. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(6):1665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chang TI, Shilane D, Kazi DS, Montez-Rath ME, Hlatky MA, Winkelmayer WC. Multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol (JASN). 2012;23(12):2042–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nevis IF, Mathew A, Novick RJ, et al. Optimal method of coronary revascularization in patients receiving dialysis: systematic review. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol (CJASN). 2009;4(2):369–78.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Szczech LA, Reddan DN, Owen WF, et al. Differential survival after coronary revascularization procedures among patients with renal insufficiency. Kidney Int. 2001;60(1):292–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shroff GR, Solid CA, Herzog CA. Long-term survival and repeat coronary revascularization in dialysis patients after surgical and percutaneous coronary revascularization with drug-eluting and bare metal stents in the United States. Circulation. 2013;127(18):1861–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Owen CH, Cummings RG, Sell TL, Schwab SJ, Jones RH, Glower DD. Coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(6):1729–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Effler DB, Sones FM, Favaloro R, Groves LK. Coronary endarterotomy with patch-graft reconstruction: clinical experience with 34 cases. Ann Surg. 1965;162(4):590–601.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brenowitz JB, Kayser KL, Johnson WD. Results of coronary artery endarterectomy and reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;95(1):1–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Soylu E, Harling L, Ashrafian H, Casula R, Kokotsakis J, Athanasiou T. Adjunct coronary endarterectomy increases myocardial infarction and early mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2014;19(3):462–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Myers PO, Tabata M, Shekar PS, Couper GS, Khalpey ZI, Aranki SF. Extensive endarterectomy and reconstruction of the left anterior descending artery: early and late outcomes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;143(6):1336–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Byrne JG, Karavas AN, Gudbjartson T, et al. Left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy: early and late results in 196 consecutive patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(3):867–73; discussion 873–864.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Livesay JJ, Cooley DA, Hallman GL, et al. Early and late results of coronary endarterectomy. Analysis of 3,369 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;92(4):649–60.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Domaradzki W, Sanetra K, Krauze J, et al. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting – midterm mortality and morbidity. Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska = Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2015;12(4):304–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Minale C, Nikol S, Zander M, Uebis R, Effert S, Messmer BJ. Controversial aspects of coronary endarterectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;48(2):235–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Loop FD. Resurgence of coronary artery endarterectomy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;11(4):712–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    LaPar DJ, Anvari F, Irvine JN Jr, et al. The impact of coronary artery endarterectomy on outcomes during coronary artery bypass grafting. J Card Surg. 2011;26(3):247–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Takanashi S, Fukui T, Miyamoto Y. Coronary endarterectomy in the left anterior descending artery. J Cardiol. 2008;52(3):261–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schmitto JD, Kolat P, Ortmann P, et al. Early results of coronary artery bypass grafting with coronary endarterectomy for severe coronary artery disease. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;4:52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Careaga Reyna G, Salazar Garrido D, Tellez Luna S, Arguero Sanchez R. Coronary endarterectomy and bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2003;56(5):515–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Huh J, Wall MJ Jr, Soltero ER. Treatment of combined coronary and carotid artery disease. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2003;18(6):447–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ozatik MA, Gol MK, Fansa I, et al. Risk factors for stroke following coronary artery bypass operations. J Card Surg. 2005;20(1):52–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Illuminati G, Ricco JB, Calio F, et al. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54(4):993–9; discussion 998–999.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Daily PO, Freeman RK, Dembitsky WP, et al. Cost reduction by combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;111(6):1185–92; discussion 1192–1183.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dzierwa K, Pieniazek P, Musialek P, et al. Treatment strategies in severe symptomatic carotid and coronary artery disease. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17(8):Ra191–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hertzer NR, Loop FD, Taylor PC, Beven EG. Combined myocardial revascularization and carotid endarterectomy. Operative and late results in 331 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1983;85(4):577–89.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rizzo RJ, Whittemore AD, Couper GS, et al. Combined carotid and coronary revascularization: the preferred approach to the severe vasculopath. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54(6):1099–108; discussion 1108–1099.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dubinsky RM, Lai SM. Mortality from combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass surgery in the US. Neurology. 2007;68(3):195–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Naylor AR, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM, Bell PR. Carotid artery disease and stroke during coronary artery bypass: a critical review of the literature. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002;23(4):283–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Constantinou J, Jayia P, Hamilton G. Best evidence for medical therapy for carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(4):1129–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Abbott AL. Medical (nonsurgical) intervention alone is now best for prevention of stroke associated with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis: results of a systematic review and analysis. Stroke. 2009;40(10):e573–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Woo K, Garg J, Hye RJ, Dilley RB. Contemporary results of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2010;41(5):975–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brott TG, Halperin JL, Abbara S, et al. 2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2011;124(4):489.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Spiliotopoulos K, Maganti M, Brister S, Rao V. Changing pattern of reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting: a 20-year study. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92(1):40–6; discussion 46–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lytle BW, Loop FD, Taylor PC, et al. Vein graft disease: the clinical impact of stenoses in saphenous vein bypass grafts to coronary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103(5):831–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Subramanian S, Sabik JF 3rd, Houghtaling PL, Nowicki ER, Blackstone EH, Lytle BW. Decision-making for patients with patent left internal thoracic artery grafts to left anterior descending. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(5):1392–8; discussion 1400.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Noyez L, van Eck FM. Long-term cardiac survival after reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25(1):59–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    He GW, Acuff TE, Ryan WH, He YH, Mack MJ. Determinants of operative mortality in reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110(4 Pt 1):971–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sabik JF 3rd, Blackstone EH, Houghtaling PL, Walts PA, Lytle BW. Is reoperation still a risk factor in coronary artery bypass surgery? Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(5):1719–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Di Mauro M, Iaco AL, Contini M, et al. Reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting: analysis of early and late outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(1):81–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yap CH, Sposato L, Akowuah E, et al. Contemporary results show repeat coronary artery bypass grafting remains a risk factor for operative mortality. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(5):1386–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ghanta RK, Kaneko T, Gammie JS, Sheng S, Aranki SF. Evolving trends of reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting: an analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145(2):364–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Weintraub WS, Jones EL, Craver JM, Grosswald R, Guyton RA. In-hospital and long-term outcome after reoperative coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 1995;92(9 Suppl):Ii50–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aviram G, Sharony R, Kramer A, et al. Modification of surgical planning based on cardiac multidetector computed tomography in reoperative heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(2):589–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kamdar AR, Meadows TA, Roselli EE, et al. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography in planning of reoperative cardiothoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(4):1239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gasparovic H, Rybicki FJ, Millstine J, et al. Three dimensional computed tomographic imaging in planning the surgical approach for redo cardiac surgery after coronary revascularization. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28(2):244–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lytle BW, Sabik JF. On-pump and off-pump bypass surgery: tools for revascularization. Circulation. 2004;109(7):810–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Racz MJ, Hannan EL, Isom OW, et al. A comparison of short- and long-term outcomes after off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery with sternotomy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(4):557–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hannan EL, Wu C, Smith CR, et al. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: differences in short-term outcomes and in long-term mortality and need for subsequent revascularization. Circulation. 2007;116(10):1145–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cleveland JC Jr, Shroyer AL, Chen AY, Peterson E, Grover FL. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting decreases risk-adjusted mortality and morbidity. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(4):1282–8; discussion 1288–1289.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nicolini F, Fortuna D, Contini GA, et al. Comparison between off- and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: long-term results of a real-world registry†. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;50(3):528–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mack MJ, Pfister A, Bachand D, et al. Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127(1):167–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sabik JF, Blackstone EH, Lytle BW, Houghtaling PL, Gillinov AM, Cosgrove DM. Equivalent midterm outcomes after off-pump and on-pump coronary surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127(1):142–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, et al. Off-pump or on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting at 30 days. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(16):1489–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, et al. Effects of off-pump and on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting at 1 year. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(13):1179–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Diegeler A, Borgermann J, Kappert U, et al. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting in elderly patients. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(13):1189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brewer R, Theurer PF, Cogan CM, Bell GF, Prager RL, Paone G. Morbidity but not mortality is decreased after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97(3):831–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ricci M, Karamanoukian HL, Abraham R, et al. Stroke in octogenarians undergoing coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(5):1471–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Trehan N, Mishra M, Kasliwal RR, Mishra A. Surgical strategies in patients at high risk for stroke undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70(3):1037–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stamou SC, Corso PJ. Coronary revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients: a route to the future. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71(3):1056–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Le May MR, So DY, Dionne R, et al. A citywide protocol for primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(3):231–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bair TL, Muhlestein JB, May HT, et al. Surgical revascularization is associated with improved long-term outcomes compared with percutaneous stenting in most subgroups of patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2007;116(11 suppl):I-226.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Javaid A, Steinberg DH, Buch AN, et al. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2007;116(11 suppl):I-200.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Daemen J, Boersma E, Flather M, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting and coronary artery bypass surgery for multivessel coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2008;118(11):1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hannan EL, Wu C, Walford G, et al. Drug-eluting stents vs. coronary-artery bypass grafting in multivessel coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(4):331–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Brown PP, Kugelmass AD, Cohen DJ, et al. The frequency and cost of complications associated with coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: results from the United States Medicare program. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(6):1980–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schimmer C, Reents W, Berneder S, et al. Prevention of sternal dehiscence and infection in high-risk patients: a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(6):1897–904.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Prasongsukarn K, Abel JG, Jamieson WR, et al. The effects of steroids on the occurrence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a prospective randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130(1):93–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Halonen J, Halonen P, Järvinen O, et al. Corticosteroids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;297(14):1562–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lahtinen MDP, Kokki MDPDH, Hynynen MDPDM. Pain after cardiac Surgery: A prospective cohort study of 1-year incidence and intensity. Anesthesiology. 2006;105(4):794–800.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Meyerson J, Thelin S, Gordh T, Karlsten R. The incidence of chronic post-sternotomy pain after cardiac surgery–a prospective study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(8):940–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McGinn JT, Usman S, Lapierre H, Pothula VR, Mesana TG, Ruel M. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2009;120(11 suppl 1):S78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Iribarne A, Easterwood R, Chan EYH, et al. The golden age of minimally invasive cardiothoracic surgery: current and future perspectives. Futur Cardiol. 2011;7(3):333–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    King RC, Reece TB, Hurst JL, et al. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting decreases hospital stay and cost. Ann Surg. 1997;225(6):805–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Holzhey DM, Jacobs S, Walther T, Mochalski M, Mohr FW, Falk V. Cumulative sum failure analysis for eight surgeons performing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;134(3):663–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Boodhwani M, Ruel M, Mesana TG, Rubens FD. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass for the treatment of isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Can J Surg. 2005;48(4):307–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Holzhey DM, Jacobs S, Mochalski M, et al. Seven-year follow-up after minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass: experience with more than 1300 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(1):108–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mohr FW, Falk V, Diegeler A, et al. Computer-enhanced “robotic” cardiac surgery: experience in 148 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;121(5):842–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Argenziano M, Katz M, Bonatti J, et al. Results of the prospective multicenter trial of robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(5):1666–74; discussion 1674–1665.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bonatti J, Rehman A, Schwartz K, et al. Robotic totally endoscopic triple coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested heart: report of the first successful clinical case. Heart Surg Forum. 2010;13(6):E394–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Seco M, Edelman JJB, Yan TD, Wilson MK, Bannon PG, Vallely MP. Systematic review of robotic-assisted, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;2(4):408–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Srivastava S, Barrera R, Quismundo S. One hundred sixty-four consecutive beating heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass cases without intraoperative conversion. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94(5):1463–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Byrne JG, Leacche M, Vaughan DE, Zhao DX. Hybrid cardiovascular procedures. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2008;1(5):459–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gasior M, Zembala MO, Tajstra M, et al. Hybrid revascularization for multivessel coronary artery disease. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7(11):1277–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Halkos ME, Vassiliades TA, Douglas JS, et al. Hybrid coronary revascularization versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92(5):1695–701; discussion 1701–1692.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Harskamp RE, Brennan JM, Xian Y, et al. Practice patterns and clinical outcomes after hybrid coronary revascularization in the United States. An Analysis From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Database. Circulation. 2014;130(11):872–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Peterson ED, Coombs LP, DeLong ER, Haan CK, Ferguson TB. Procedural volume as a marker of quality for CABG surgery. JAMA. 2004;291(2):195–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nallamothu BK, Saint S, Hofer TP, Vijan S, Eagle KA, Bernstein SJ. Impact of patient risk on the hospital volume-outcome relationship in coronary artery bypass grafting. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(3):333–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Birkmeyer JD, Siewers AE, Finlayson EV, et al. Hospital volume and surgical mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(15):1128–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fortescue EB, Kahn K, Bates DW. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for major adverse outcomes in coronary bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88(11):1251–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zakeri R, Freemantle N, Barnett V, et al. Relation between mild renal dysfunction and outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2005;112(9 Suppl):I270–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yau TM, Fedak PW, Weisel RD, Teng C, Ivanov J. Predictors of operative risk for coronary bypass operations in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;118(6):1006–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nallamothu BK, Saint S, Ramsey SD, Hofer TP, Vijan S, Eagle KA. The role of hospital volume in coronary artery bypass grafting: is more always better? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38(7):1923–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wu C, Hannan EL, Ryan TJ, et al. Is the impact of hospital and surgeon volumes on the in-hospital mortality rate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery limited to patients at high risk? Circulation. 2004;110(7):784–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Edwards FH, Clark RE, Schwartz M. Coronary artery bypass grafting: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(1):12–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nilsson J, Algotsson L, Hoglund P, Luhrs C, Brandt J. Early mortality in coronary bypass surgery: the EuroSCORE versus the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk algorithm. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77(4):1235–9; discussion 1239–1240.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    ElBardissi AW, Aranki SF, Sheng S, O'Brien SM, Greenberg CC, Gammie JS. Trends in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting: an analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons adult cardiac surgery database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;143(2):273–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shahian DM, O'Brien SM, Sheng S, et al. Predictors of long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: results from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (the ASCERT study). Circulation. 2012;125(12):1491–500.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wu C, Camacho FT, Wechsler AS, et al. Risk score for predicting long-term mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 2012;125(20):2423–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Loop FD, Lytle BW, Cosgrove DM, et al. Influence of the internal-mammary-artery graft on 10-year survival and other cardiac events. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cameron AA, Green GE, Brogno DA, Thornton J. Internal thoracic artery grafts: 20-year clinical follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25(1):188–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Parang P, Arora R. Coronary vein graft disease: pathogenesis and prevention. Can J Cardiol. 2009;25(2):e57–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hess CN, Lopes RD, Gibson CM, et al. Saphenous vein graft failure after coronary artery bypass surgery: insights from PREVENT IV. Circulation. 2014;130(17):1445–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cameron A, Davis KB, Green G, Schaff HV. Coronary bypass surgery with internal-thoracic-artery grafts--effects on survival over a 15-year period. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(4):216–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Samano N, Geijer H, Liden M, Fremes S, Bodin L, Souza D. The no-touch saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass grafting maintains a patency, after 16 years, comparable to the left internal thoracic artery: a randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;150(4):880–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lopes RD, Mehta RH, Hafley GE, et al. Relationship between vein graft failure and subsequent clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery. Circulation. 2012;125(6):749–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Goldman S, Zadina K, Krasnicka B, et al. Predictors of graft patency 3 years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group No. 297. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29(7):1563–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Domanski MJ, Borkowf CB, Campeau L, et al. Prognostic factors for atherosclerosis progression in saphenous vein grafts: the postcoronary artery bypass graft (Post-CABG) trial. Post-CABG Trial Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36(6):1877–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Warren SG, Wagner GS, Bethea CF, Roe CR, Oldham HN, Kong Y. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of electrocardiographic and CPK isoenzyme changes following coronary bypass surgery: correlation with findings at one year. Am Heart J. 1977;93(2):189–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Thygesen K, Alpert JS, White HD. Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2007;28(20):2525–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yau JM, Alexander JH, Hafley G, et al. Impact of perioperative myocardial infarction on angiographic and clinical outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (from PRoject of ex-vivo vein graft ENgineering via transfection [PREVENT] IV). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(5):546–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dauerman HL, Cutlip DE, Sellke FW. Intracoronary thrombolysis in the treatment of graft closure immediately after CABG. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(1):280–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary intervention: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Circulation. 2011;124(23):e574–651.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Roberts AJ, Niarchos AP, Subramanian VA, et al. Systemic hypertension associated with coronary artery bypass surgery. Predisposing factors, hemodynamic characteristics, humoral profile, and treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1977;74(6):846–59.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Fremes SE, Weisel RD, Baird RJ, et al. Effects of postoperative hypertension and its treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1983;86(1):47–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Omar S, Zedan A, Nugent K. Cardiac vasoplegia syndrome: pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment. Am J Med Sci. 2015;349(1):80–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wittwer ED, Lynch JJ, Oliver WC, Dearani JA, Burkhart HM, Mauermann WJ. The incidence of vasoplegia in adult patients with right-sided congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac surgery and the correlation with serum vasopressin concentrations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;148(2):625–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fischer GW, Levin MA. Vasoplegia during cardiac surgery: current concepts and management. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;22(2):140–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hajjar LA, Vincent JL, Barbosa Gomes Galas FR, et al. Vasopressin versus norepinephrine in patients with Vasoplegic shock after cardiac surgery: the VANCS randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2017;126(1):85–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Evora PRB. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene. 2015;30(1):84–92.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mostafa A, El-Haddad MA, Shenoy M, Tuliani T. Atrial fibrillation post cardiac bypass surgery. Avicenna J Med. 2012;2(3):65–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Haghjoo M, Basiri H, Salek M, et al. Predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2008;8(2):94–101.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rader F, Costantini O, Jarrett C, Gorodeski EZ, Lauer MS, Blackstone EH. Quantitative electrocardiography for predicting postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. J Electrocardiol. 2011;44(6):761–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Amar D, Shi W, Hogue CW Jr, et al. Clinical prediction rule for atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(6):1248–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Crystal E, Connolly SJ, Sleik K, Ginger TJ, Yusuf S. Interventions on prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery: a meta-analysis. Circulation. 2002;106(1):75–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Fuster V, Ryden LE, Asinger RW, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines and policy conferences (committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation): developed in collaboration with the north American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38(4):1231–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Eagle KA, Guyton RA, Davidoff R, et al. ACC/AHA 2004 guideline update for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee to update the 1999 guidelines for coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Circulation. 2004;110(14):e340–437.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pires LA, Wagshal AB, Lancey R, Huang SK. Arrhythmias and conduction disturbances after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: epidemiology, management, and prognosis. Am Heart J. 1995;129(4):799–808.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Pinto RP, Romerill DB, Nasser WK, Schier JJ, Surawicz B. Prognosis of patients with frequent premature ventricular complexes and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Clin Cardiol. 1996;19(4):321–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wu ZK, Iivainen T, Pehkonen E, Laurikka J, Tarkka MR. Ischemic preconditioning suppresses ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization. Circulation. 2002;106(24):3091–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ascione R, Reeves BC, Santo K, Khan N, Angelini GD. Predictors of new malignant ventricular arrhythmias after coronary surgery: a case-control study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(9):1630–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Steinberg JS, Gaur A, Sciacca R, Tan E. New-onset sustained ventricular tachycardia after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999;99(7):903–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Azar RR, Berns E, Seecharran B, Veronneau J, Lippman N, Kluger J. De novo monomorphic and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia following coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80(1):76–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Yeung-Lai-Wah JA, Qi A, McNeill E, et al. New-onset sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation early after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77(6):2083–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inoue T, Ogawa R. Magnesium prophylaxis for arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2004;117(5):325–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Emlein G, Huang SK, Pires LA, Rofino K, Okike ON, Vander Salm TJ. Prolonged bradyarrhythmias after isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Am Heart J. 1993;126(5):1084–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Glikson M, Dearani JA, Hyberger LK, Schaff HV, Hammill SC, Hayes DL. Indications, effectiveness, and long-term dependency in permanent pacing after cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80(10):1309–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Baerman JM, Kirsh MM, de Buitleir M, et al. Natural history and determinants of conduction defects following coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44(2):150–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gill PJ, Forbes K, Coe JY. The effect of short-term prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid on the incidence of postpericardiotomy syndrome after surgical closure of atrial septal defects. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009;30(8):1061–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mott AR, Fraser CD Jr, Kusnoor AV, et al. The effect of short-term prophylactic methylprednisolone on the incidence and severity of postpericardiotomy syndrome in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37(6):1700–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Imazio M, Brucato A, Ferrazzi P, et al. Colchicine for prevention of postpericardiotomy syndrome and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the COPPS-2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312(10):1016–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Weitzman LB, Tinker WP, Kronzon I, Cohen ML, Glassman E, Spencer FC. The incidence and natural history of pericardial effusion after cardiac surgery–an echocardiographic study. Circulation. 1984;69(3):506–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Meurin P, Weber H, Renaud N, et al. Evolution of the postoperative pericardial effusion after day 15: the problem of the late tamponade. Chest. 2004;125(6):2182–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kuvin JT, Harati NA, Pandian NG, Bojar RM, Khabbaz KR. Postoperative cardiac tamponade in the modern surgical era. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74(4):1148–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    McKhann GM, Grega MA, Borowicz LM Jr, et al. Encephalopathy and stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting: incidence, consequences, and prediction. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(9):1422–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Likosky DS, Marrin CA, Caplan LR, et al. Determination of etiologic mechanisms of strokes secondary to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Stroke. 2003;34(12):2830–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Roach GW, Kanchuger M, Mangano CM, et al. Adverse cerebral outcomes after coronary bypass surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group and the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation investigators. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(25):1857–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Newman MF, Kirchner JL, Phillips-Bute B, et al. Longitudinal assessment of neurocognitive function after coronary-artery bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(6):395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Selnes OA, Grega MA, Bailey MM, et al. Cognition 6 years after surgical or medical therapy for coronary artery disease. Ann Neurol. 2008;63(5):581–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Karkouti K, Cohen MM, McCluskey SA, Sher GD. A multivariable model for predicting the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing first-time elective coronary bypass graft surgery. Transfusion. 2001;41(10):1193–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Sellman M, Intonti MA, Ivert T. Reoperations for bleeding after coronary artery bypass procedures during 25 years. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997;11(3):521–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Arias-Morales CE, Stoicea N, Gonzalez-Zacarias AA, et al. Revisiting blood transfusion and predictors of outcome in cardiac surgery patients: a concise perspective. F1000Res. 2017;6. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-168.  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.10085.1. eCollection 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ferraris VA, Ferraris SP, Saha SP, et al. Perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists clinical practice guideline. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(5 Suppl):S27–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Rosner MH, Okusa MD. Acute kidney injury associated with cardiac surgery. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(1):19–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN, Yau TM, et al. Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: focus on modifiable risk factors. Circulation. 2009;119(4):495–502.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Van Den Noortgate N, Mouton V, Lamot C, et al. Outcome in a post-cardiac surgery population with acute renal failure requiring dialysis: does age make a difference? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18(4):732–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Leacche M, Rawn JD, Mihaljevic T, et al. Outcomes in patients with normal serum creatinine and with artificial renal support for acute renal failure developing after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2004;93(3):353–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Englberger L, Suri RM, Li Z, et al. Validation of clinical scores predicting severe acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;56(4):623–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Vermeulen Windsant IC, Snoeijs MG, Hanssen SJ, et al. Hemolysis is associated with acute kidney injury during major aortic surgery. Kidney Int. 2010;77(10):913–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Chepla KJ, Salgado CJ, Tang CJ, Mardini S, Evans KK. Late complications of chest wall reconstruction: management of painful sternal nonunion. Semin Plast Surg. 2011;25(1):98–106.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hirose H, Amano A, Takanashi S, Takahashi A. Skeletonized bilateral internal mammary artery grafting for patients with diabetes. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2003;2(3):287–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sajja LR. Strategies to reduce deep sternal wound infection after bilateral internal mammary artery grafting. Int J Surg (London, England). 2015;16(Pt B):171–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Borger MA, Rao V, Weisel RD, et al. Deep sternal wound infection: risk factors and outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65(4):1050–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Loop FD, Lytle BW, Cosgrove DM, et al. J. Maxwell Chamberlain memorial paper. Sternal wound complications after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting: early and late mortality, morbidity, and cost of care. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;49(2):179–86; discussion 186–177.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Braxton JH, Marrin CA, McGrath PD, et al. Mediastinitis and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70(6):2004–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Milano CA, Kesler K, Archibald N, Sexton DJ, Jones RH. Mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Risk factors and long-term survival. Circulation. 1995;92(8):2245–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Bitkover CY, Gardlund B. Mediastinitis after cardiovascular operations: a case-control study of risk factors. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65(1):36–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Trick WE, Scheckler WE, Tokars JI, et al. Modifiable risk factors associated with deep sternal site infection after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;119(1):108–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Puskas JD, Williams WH, Mahoney EM, et al. Off-pump vs conventional coronary artery bypass grafting: early and 1-year graft patency, cost, and quality-of-life outcomes: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;291(15):1841–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Goldman S, Copeland J, Moritz T, et al. Saphenous vein graft patency 1 year after coronary artery bypass surgery and effects of antiplatelet therapy. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. Circulation. 1989;80(5):1190–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Lim E, Ali Z, Ali A, et al. Indirect comparison meta-analysis of aspirin therapy after coronary surgery. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed). 2003;327(7427):1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Wang G, Bainbridge D, Martin J, Cheng D. The efficacy of an intraoperative cell saver during cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(2):320–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Zimmermann N, Kurt M, Wenk A, Winter J, Gams E, Hohlfeld T. Is cardiopulmonary bypass a reason for aspirin resistance after coronary artery bypass grafting? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;27(4):606–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Capodanno D, Patel A, Dharmashankar K, et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of different aspirin dosing regimens in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4(2):180–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Goldman S, Copeland J, Moritz T, et al. Starting aspirin therapy after operation. Effects on early graft patency. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Circulation. 1991;84(2):520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Bybee KA, Powell BD, Valeti U, et al. Preoperative aspirin therapy is associated with improved postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2005;112(9 suppl):I-286.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Dacey LJ, Munoz JJ, Johnson ER, et al. Effect of preoperative aspirin use on mortality in coronary artery bypass grafting patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70(6):1986–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Sun JC, Crowther MA, Warkentin TE, Lamy A, Teoh KH. Should aspirin be discontinued before coronary artery bypass surgery? Circulation. 2005;112(7):e85–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Cannon CP, Mehta SR, Aranki SF. Balancing the benefit and risk of oral antiplatelet agents in coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(2):768–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Mangano DT. Aspirin and mortality from coronary bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(17):1309–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Halkos ME, Cooper WA, Petersen R, et al. Early administration of clopidogrel is safe after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(3):815–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Kim DH, Daskalakis C, Silvestry SC, et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel use in the early postoperative period following on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138(6):1377–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Gao G, Zheng Z, Pi Y, Lu B, Lu J, Hu S. Aspirin plus clopidogrel therapy increases early venous graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery a single-center, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(20):1639–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Deo SV, Dunlay SM, Shah IK, et al. Dual anti-platelet therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting: is there any benefit? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Surg. 2013;28(2):109–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Nocerino AG, Achenbach S, Taylor AJ. Meta-analysis of effect of single versus dual antiplatelet therapy on early patency of bypass conduits after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112(10):1576–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Sousa-Uva M, Storey R, Huber K, et al. Expert position paper on the management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(23):1510–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Levine GN, Bates ER, Bittl JA, et al. 2016 ACC/AHA guideline focused update on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68(10):1082–115.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Alexiou K, Kappert U, Staroske A, et al. Coronary surgery for acute coronary syndrome: which determinants of outcome remain? Clin Res Cardiol. 2008;97(9):601–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Chiu F-C, Chang S-N, Lin J-W, Hwang J-J, Chen Y-S. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery provides better survival in patients with acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction experiencing cardiogenic shock after percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138(6):1326–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Russo A, Suri RM, Grigioni F, et al. Clinical outcome after surgical correction of mitral regurgitation due to papillary muscle rupture. Circulation. 2008;118(15):1528.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Shamshad F, Kenchaiah S, Finn PV, et al. Fatal myocardial rupture after acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both: the VALsartan in Acute myocardial iNfarcTion Trial (VALIANT). Am Heart J. 2010;160(1):145–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Mehta RH, Lopes RD, Ballotta A, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery for cardiogenic shock and multivessel coronary artery disease? Am Heart J. 2010;159(1):141–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    White HD, Assmann SF, Sanborn TA, et al. Comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting after acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Circulation. 2005;112(13):1992.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Ngaage DL, Cale ARJ, Cowen ME, Griffin S, Guvendik L. Early and late survival after surgical revascularization for ischemic ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(4):1278–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Every NR, Fahrenbruch CE, Hallstrom AP, Weaver WD, Cobb LA. Influence of coronary bypass surgery on subsequent outcome of patients resuscitated from out of hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;19(7):1435–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Kelly P, Ruskin JN, Vlahakes GJ, Buckley MJ Jr, Freeman CS, Garan H. Surgical coronary revascularization in survivors of prehospital cardiac arrest: its effect on inducible ventricular arrhythmias and long-term survival. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990;15(2):267–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Barakate MS, Bannon PG, Hughes CF, Horton MD, Callaway A, Hurst T. Emergency surgery after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty: a review of 15 years’ experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75(5):1400–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Roy P, de Labriolle A, Hanna N, et al. Requirement for emergent coronary artery bypass surgery following percutaneous coronary intervention in the stent era. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103(7):950–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Craver JM, Weintraub WS, Jones EL, Guyton RA, Hatcher CR Jr. Emergency coronary artery bypass surgery for failed percutaneous coronary angioplasty. A 10-year experience. Ann Surg. 1992;215(5):425–33; discussion 433–424.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Stamou SC, Hill PC, Haile E, Prince S, Mack MJ, Corso PJ. Clinical outcomes of nonelective coronary revascularization with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131(1):28–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Kappetein AP, Head SJ, Morice MC, et al. Treatment of complex coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes: 5-year results comparing outcomes of bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention in the SYNTAX trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;43(5):1006–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Kolkailah
    • 1
  • Fernando Ramirez Del Val
    • 1
  • Tsuyoshi Kaneko
    • 1
  • Sary F. Aranki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Cardiac SurgeryBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations