Experimenting with Circular Business Models—A Process-Oriented Approach

  • Maria AntikainenEmail author
  • Nancy Bocken
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Sustainable Business In Association with Future Earth book series (PSSBAFE)


In this chapter, Antikainen and Bocken illustrate how a 5-step circular business model experimentation process model approach can be used. The main challenges across different phases are identified. Based on a case study they identify challenges related to feasibility of the needed technology, environmental challenges and challenges related to the scalability. Also, the collaboration between company and other stakeholders as well as with communication and visibility were identified as relevant challenges. The approach helps organisations to focus on the most relevant issues that are also most prone for challenges during the process offering also very practical tools. To conclude, various future research paths are identified for this new research field.



This research has been conducted as part of the AARRE (Capitalising on Invisible Value—User-Driven Business Models in the Emerging Circular Economy) and CloseLoop projects. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Business Finland, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), the case companies and other parties involved in the AARRE project as well as to the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland, project CloseLoop (grant number 303453).


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandEspooFinland
  2. 2.Lund UniversityLundSweden
  3. 3.Lappeenranta University of TechnologyLappeenrantaFinland

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