Advertisement

Judicial Reasoning from the Perspective of Behavioural Law and Economics

  • Mariusz Jerzy GoleckiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice book series (IUSGENT, volume 69)

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to scrutinize the prospects of development of a descriptive model of adjudication under the assumptions of bounded rationality. The model is supposed to include the achievements of contemporary cognitive psychology, cognitive sciences and behavioural law and economics. The growth of judicial activism and the empowerment of courts demonstrates a clear need for revision of present current models of adjudication. The fact that judges are many times are forced to perform they tasks under a veil of ignorance and are equally exposed to affects, heuristics, biases and manipulations gives sufficient ground for review of the dominant concept of judicial rationality and impartiality. I urge us to analyse the judicial rationality from the perspective of dual process theory so as to encapsulate heuristics and biases with the wider model of adjudication. The proposed interdisciplinary approach may contribute to the introduction of the institutional and procedural changes that would take into consideration the complex nature of the cognitive processes as well as their limits in the context of the law application of law.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The paper has been prepared within the framework of the research project 2015/17/HS5/00495 financed by the National Science Centre, Poland.

References

  1. Bennett H, Broe G (2010) Judicial decision-making and neurobiology: the role of emotion and the ventromedial cortex in deliberation and reasoning. Australian J Forensic Sci 42(1):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Damasio A, Sutherland S (1994) Descartes’ error: emotion, reason and the human brain. Nature 372(6503):287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Epstein S (1994) Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. Am Psychol 49(8):709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Golecki MJ (2014) Translation vs. decoding strategies in law and economics scholarship. In: Cheng L, Wagner A (eds) Ashgate handbook of legal translation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Farnham and Burlington, pp 15–26Google Scholar
  5. Golecki MJ (2015) New York Times v. Sullivan in European Context. In: Anonymous European perspectives on behavioural law and economics. Springer, New York, Dordrecht, London, pp 243–267Google Scholar
  6. Golecki MJ, Romanowicz M, Wojciechowski JW (2016) Nudging in tax law? Eye tracking research on limits of efficacy of legal definitions. In: Mathis K, Tor A (eds) Nudging-possibilities, limitations and applications in European law and economics. Springer, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London, pp 289–313Google Scholar
  7. Guthrie C, Rachlinski JJ, Wistrich AJ (2000) Inside the judicial mind. Cornell Law Rev 86:777–830Google Scholar
  8. Guthrie C, Rachlinski JJ, Wistrich AJ (2007) Blinking on the bench: how judges decide cases. Cornell Law Rev 93:1–43Google Scholar
  9. Hadfield GK (2008) The levers of legal design: institutional determinants of the quality of law. J Compar Econ 36(1):43–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hadfield GK (2011) The dynamic quality of law: the role of judicial incentives and legal human capital in the adaptation of law. J Econ Behav Organ 79(1):80–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Horstmann N, Ahlgrimm A, Glöckner A (2009) How distinct are intuition and deliberation? An eye-tracking analysis of instruction-induced decision modes. An eye-tracking analysis of instruction-induced decision modes 4(10)Google Scholar
  12. Jolls C, Sunstein CR, Thaler R (1998) A behavioral approach to law and economics. Stanford Law Rev 50:1471–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kahneman D (2011) Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Kahneman D, Tversky A (1979) Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: J Econ Soc 47:263–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kunda Z (1990) The case for motivated reasoning. Psychol Bull 108(3):480–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maroney TA (2011) Emotional regulation and judicial behavior. Calif Law Rev 99:1485Google Scholar
  17. Maroney TA (2012) Angry judges. Vanderbilt Law Rev 65:1207Google Scholar
  18. Nosofsky RM (1986) Attention, similarity, and the identification–categorization relationship. J Exp Psychol Gen 115(1):39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nosofsky RM (1992) Exemplars, prototypes, and similarity rules. In: Healy AF, Kosslyn SM, Shiffrin RM (eds) From learning theory to connectionist theory: essays in honor of William K. Estes, vol 1. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale New Jersy, pp 149–167Google Scholar
  20. Petersen N (2013) Avoiding the common-wisdom fallacy: the role of social sciences in constitutional adjudication. Int J Const Law 11(2):294–318Google Scholar
  21. Ponzetto GA, Fernandez PA (2008) Case law versus statute law: an evolutionary comparison. J Legal Stud 37(2):379–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Posner RA (2007) Economic analysis of law, 7nd edn. Wolters Kluwer Law & BusinessGoogle Scholar
  23. Rachlinski JJ (1998) A positive psychological theory of judging in hindsight. University of Chicago Law Rev 65(2):571–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rachlinski JJ (2010) Processing pleadings and the psychology of prejudgments. DePaul L Rev 60:413Google Scholar
  25. Sloman SA (2002) Two systems of reasoning. In: Gilovich T, Griffin D, Kahneman D (eds) Heuristics and biases: the psychology of intuitive judgment. Cambridge University Press, pp 379–396Google Scholar
  26. Slovic P, Finucane M, Peters E, McGeorge DG (2002) The affect heuristic. In: Gilovich T, Griffin D, Kahneman D (eds) The psychology of intuitive judgment: heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith EE, Patalano AL, Jonides J (1998) Alternative strategies of categorization. Cognition 65(2):167–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith EE, Sloman SA (1994) Similarity-versus rule-based categorization. Mem Cognit 22(4):377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sunstein CR (ed) (2000) Behavioral law and economics. Cambridge series on judgment and decision making. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  30. Sunstein CR (2001) One case at a time: judicial minimalism on the Supreme Court. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  31. Sunstein CR (2005) Moral heuristics. Behav Brain Sci 28:531Google Scholar
  32. Vermeule A (2006) Judging under uncertainty: an institutional theory of legal interpretation. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  33. Wistrich AJ, Rachlinski JJ, Guthrie C (2015) Heart versus head: do judges follow the law of follow their feelings. Texas Law Rev 93:855–923Google Scholar
  34. Wróblewski J (1988) Sądowe stosowanie prawa. Państwowe Wydawn. Nauk, WarszawaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Law and AdministrationUniversity of LodzLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations