Category III: Atypical



A subgroup of specimens exists within pulmonary cytopathology which demonstrate cytomorphologic features beyond that seen in typical benign and reactive conditions but lack the degree of cellular changes warranting a diagnosis of suspicious for malignancy; such cases are best categorized as “atypical.” Although these cases are associated with a considerable risk of malignancy in follow-up studies, a significant percentage are a result of profound inflammatory conditions, acute and chronic lung injury, and treatment effects. The cytomorphologic criteria for designation of specimens as “atypical” are described and illustrated.


Atypical Cytology Cytopathology Lung Pulmonary Respiratory Fine-needle aspiration Bronchial brushing Bronchial washing Bronchoalveolar lavage Suspicious 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cytopathology SectionHospital of the University of Pennsylvania Health SystemPhiladelphiaUSA

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