Advertisement

Intersecting Identities and Racial and Ethnic Minority in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

  • Veenod L. ChulaniEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

LGBT youth who are also members of non-dominant racial and ethnic groups must develop both their sexual and racial/ethnic identities as they develop their overall adult identity. As members of dually marginalized groups, youth may encounter stigma at multiple levels, which can profoundly influence their identity formation, lived experiences, and life trajectories. Clinicians caring for racial and ethnic minority LGBT youth have the opportunity to create an affirming environment and explore these specific influences with youth in clinical encounters. This chapter offers a closer look at sexual and racial/ethnic identity development as individual, concurrent, and intersecting processes. It examines sexual stigma, racism, and its impact on racial and ethnic minority LGBT populations. Additionally, it proposes a strength-based clinical approach based on emerging research in the area of resiliency that focuses on youths’ strengths as part of an overall strategy to promote youth development and positive outcomes for racial and ethnic minority LGBT youth.

Keywords

LGBT Transgender Stigma Sexual identity Racial identity Ethnic identity Positive youth development Microaggressions Intersectionality 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Kathleen Carlson, MLS, D-AHIP.

References

  1. 1.
    Graham R, Berkowitz B, Blum R, et al. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Russell ST, Clarke TJ, Clary J. Are teens “post-gay”? Contemporary adolescents’ sexual identity labels. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38(7):884–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gates GJ. In United States, more adults identifying as LGBT. http://www.gallup.com/poll/201731/lgbt-identification-rises.aspx. Updated 2017. Accessed 12 May 2017.
  5. 5.
    Gates GJ. LGBT data collection amid social and demographic shifts of the US LGBT community. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(8):1220–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, et al. Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-related behaviors among students in grades 9-12 – United States and selected sites, 2015. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;65(9):1–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chung YB, Katayama M. Ethnic and sexual identity development of Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents. Prof Sch Couns. 1998;1(3):21–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cass VC. Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model. J Homosex. 1979;4(3):219–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Troiden RR. The formation of homosexual identities. J Homosex. 1989;17(1–2):43–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coleman E. Developmental stages of the coming out process. J Homosex. 1982;7(2–3):31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herdt GH, Boxer A. Children of horizons: how gay and lesbian teens are leading a new way out of the closet. Boston: Beacon Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boxer AM, Cohler BJ. The life course of gay and lesbian youth: an immodest proposal for the study of lives. J Homosex. 1989;17(3–4):315–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phinney JS. Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. J Early Adolesc. 1989;9(1–2):34–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atkinson DR, Morten G, Sue DW. Counseling American minorities: a cross-cultural perspective. Madison: Brown & Benchmark; 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Helms JE. Black and white racial identity: theory, research, and practice. Westport: Greenwood Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cross WE Jr. Shades of black: diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cross WE Jr. The psychology of nigrescence: revising the cross model. In: Ponterotto JG, Casas JM, Suzuki LA, Alexander CM, editors. Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc; 1995.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jamil OB, Harper GW, Fernandez MI. Adolescent trials network for HIV/AIDS interventions. Sexual and ethnic identity development among gay-bisexual-questioning (GBQ) male ethnic minority adolescents. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2009;15(3):203–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith EJ. Ethnic identity development: toward the development of a theory within the context of majority/minority status. J Couns Dev. 1991;70(1):181–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parham TA. Cycles of psychological nigrescence. Couns Psychol. 1989;17(2):187–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tremble B, Schneider M, Appathurai C. Growing up gay or lesbian in a multicultural context. J Homosex. 1989;17(3–4):253–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mays VM, Cochran SD, Rhue S. The impact of perceived discrimination on the intimate relationships of black lesbians. J Homosex. 1993;25(4):1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bridges SK, Selvidge M, Matthews CR. Lesbian women of color: therapeutic issues and challenges. J Multicult Couns Devel. 2003;31(2):113–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grov C, Bimbi DS, Nanin JE, Parsons JT. Race, ethnicity, gender, and generational factors associated with the coming-out process among lesbian, and bisexual individuals. J Sex Res. 2006;43(2):115–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diaz RM. Latino gay men and HIV: culture, sexuality, and risk behavior. New York: Routledge; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harper GW, Jernewall N, Zea MC. Giving voice to emerging science and theory for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of color. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2004;10(3):187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ward J. White normativity: the cultural dimensions of whiteness in a racially diverse LGBT organization. Sociol Perspect. 2008;51(3):563–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wilson PA, Valera P, Ventuneac A, Balan I, Rowe M, Carballo-Dieguez A. Race-based sexual stereotyping and sexual partnering among men who use the internet to identify other men for bareback sex. J Sex Res. 2009;46(5):399–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goffman E. Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2009.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herek GM. Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24(1):54–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Annu Rev Sociol. 2001;27(1):363–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meyer IH. Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36(1):38–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meyer IH. Minority stress and mental health in gay men Psychological perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual experiences. In: Garnets LD, Kimmel DC, editors. New York: Columbia University Press; 2003. p. 699–731.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nemoto T, Iwamoto M, Operario D. HIV risk behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander male-to-female transgenders. Community Psychol. 2003;36:31–5.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nemoto T, Sausa LA, Operario D, Keatley J. Need for HIV/AIDS education and intervention for MTF transgenders: responding to the challenge. J Homosex. 2006;51(1):183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jones CP. Levels of racism: a theoretic framework and a gardener’s tale. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(8):1212–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sue DW, Capodilupo CM, Torino GC, et al. Racial microaggressions in everyday life: implications for clinical practice. Am Psychol. 2007;62(4):271–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sue DW, Nadal KL, Capodilupo CM, Lin AI, Torino GC, Rivera DP. Racial microaggressions against black Americans: implications for counseling. J Couns Dev. 2008;86(3):330–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Smith WA, Allen WR, Danley LL. “Assume the position... You fit the description” psychosocial experiences and racial battle fatigue among African American male college students. Am Behav Sci. 2007;51(4):551–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Balsam KF, Molina Y, Beadnell B, Simoni J, Walters K. Measuring multiple minority stress: the LGBT people of color microaggressions scale. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2011;17(2):163–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Diaz EM, Kosciw JG. Shared differences: the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students of color in our nation’s schools. New York: GLESN; 2009.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bradford J, Barrett K, Honnold JA. The 2000 census and same-sex households: a user’s guide. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute; 2002.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dunn M, Moodie-Mills A. The state of gay and transgender communities of color. Center for American Progress; 2012. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/news/2012/04/13/11493/the-state-of-gay-and-transgender-communities-of-colorin-2012.
  44. 44.
    Badgett MVL, Durso LE, Schneebaum A. New patterns of poverty in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute; 2013.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ray N, Berger C. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: an epidemic of homelessness. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute; 2007.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Freeman L, Hamilton D. A count of homeless youth in New York city. New York: Empire State Coalition of Youth and Family Services; 2008.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among gay and bisexual men. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm. Updated 2014. Accessed 21 Aug 2017.
  48. 48.
    Cahill S, South K, Spade J. Outing age: public policy issues affecting gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender elders. Washington, DC: Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Taskforce; 2000.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grant JM, Mottet L, Tanis JE, Harrison J, Herman J, Keisling M. Injustice at every turn: a report of the national transgender discrimination survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality; 2011.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Moodie-Mills AC. Jumping beyond the broom: why Black gay and transgender Americans need more than marriage equality. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress; 2012.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harper GW, Brodsky A, Bruce D. What’s good about being gay?: perspectives from youth. J LGBT Youth. 2012;9(1):22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Akerlund M, Cheung M. Teaching beyond the deficit model: gay and lesbian issues among African-Americans, Latinos, and Asian-Americans. J Soc Work Educ. 2000;36(2):279–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Conron K, Wilson J, Cahill S, Flaherty J, Tamanaha M, Bradford J. Our health matters: mental health risk, and resilience among LGBTQ youth of color who live, work, or play in Boston. Boston: The Fenway Institute; 2015.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scourfield J, Roen K, McDermott L. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people’s experiences of distress: resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour. Health Soc Care Community. 2008;16(3):329–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ryan C, Russell ST, Huebner D, Diaz R, Sanchez J. Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2010;23(4):205–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Heck NC, Flentje A, Cochran BN. Offsetting risks: high school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Sch Psychol Q. 2011;26(2):161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Toomey RB, Russell ST. Gay-straight alliances, social justice involvement, and school victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer youth: implications for school well-being and plans to vote. Youth Soc. 2013;45(4):500–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gastic B, Johnson D. Teacher-mentors and the educational resilience of sexual minority youth. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv. 2009;21(2–3):219–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Davies D. Towards a model of gay affirmative therapy. In: Davies D, Neal C, editors. Pink therapy: a guide for counselors and therapists working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients. Philadephia: Open University Press; 1996. p. 24–40.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Appleby GA, Anastas JW. Not just a passing phase: social work with gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. New York: Columbia University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. A practitioner’s resource guide: helping families to support their LGBT children. HHS Publication No. PEP14-LGBTKIDS. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2014.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Welcoming schools. http://www.welcomingschools.org. Accessed 5 Aug 2017.
  63. 63.
    Orr A, Baum J, Brown J, Gill E, Kahn E, Salem A. Schools in transition: a guide for supporting transgender students in K-12 schools. Policy File; 2015. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1820819031.
  64. 64.
    Khan M, Ilcisin M, Saxton K. Multifactorial discrimination as a fundamental cause of mental health inequities. Int J Equity Health 2017;16.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-017-0532-z

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Adolescent Medicine, Department of General Pediatrics and Adolescent MedicinePhoenix Children’s HospitalPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations